Skip booklet index and go to page content

Technical Thematic Report No. 17. - Monitoring ecosystems remotely: a selection of trends measured from satellite observations of Canada

References

Alcaraz-Segura, D., Chuvieco, E., Epstein, H.E., Kasischke, E.S. and Trishchenko, A. 2010. Debating the greening vs. browning of the North American boreal forest: differences between satellite datasets. Global Change Biology 16:760-770.

Andrew, M.E., Wulder, M.A. and Coops, N.C. 2011. How do butterflies define ecosystems? A comparison of ecological regionalization schemes. Biological Conservation 144:1409-1418.

Arft, A.M., Walker, M.D., Turner, P.L., Gurevitch, J., Alatalo, J.M., Molau, U., Nordenhäll, U., Stenström, A., Stenström, M., Bret-Harte, M.S., Dale, M., Diemer, M., Gugerli, F. and Henry, G.H.R. 1999. Responses of tundra plants to experimental warming: meta-analysis of the International Tundra Experiment. Ecological Monographs 69:491-511.

Bonsal, B. and Regier, M. 2007. Historical comparison of the 2001/2002 drought in the Canadian Prairies. Climate Research 33:229-242.

Bunn, A.G. and Goetz, S.J. 2006. Trends in satellite-observed circumpolar photosynthetic activity from 1982 to 2003: the influence of seasonality, cover type, and vegetation density. Earth Interactions 10:1-19.

Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. 2005. Smart growth in Canada: a report card. Government of Canada. 8 p.

CCRS. 2005. Glossary of remote sensing terms [online]. Natural Resources Canada. (accessed 29 March, 2010).

Cheng, R. and Lee, P. 2008. Urban sprawl and other major land use conversions in Ontario's greenbelt from 1993 to 2007: a change analysis project using satellite imagery. Global Forest Watch Canada. Edmonton, AB. 31 p.

Cihlar, J., Beaubien, J., Latifovic, R. and Simard, G. 1999. Land cover of Canada version 1.1. Natural Resources Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. CD-Rom.

Cihlar, J., Xiao, Q., Chen, J., Beaubien, J., Fung, K. and Latifovic, R. 1998. Classification by progressive generalization: a new automated methodology for remote sensing multi-channel data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 19:2685-2704.

Coops, N.C., Waring, R.H., Wulder, M.A., .Pidgeon, A.M. and Radeloff, V.C. 2009a. Bird diversity: a predictable function of satellite-derived estimates of seasonal variation in canopy light absorbance across the United States. Journal of Biogeography 36:905-918.

Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Duro, D.C., Han, T. and Berry, S. 2008. The development of a Canadian dynamic habitat index using multi-temporal satellite estimates of canopy light absorbance. Ecological Indicators 8:754-766.

Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A. and Iwanicka, D. 2009b. Demonstration of a satellite-based index to monitor habitat at continental-scales. Ecological Indicators 9:948-958.

Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A. and Iwanicka, D. 2009c. Exploring the relative importance of satellite-derived descriptors of production, topography and land cover for predicting breeding bird species richness over Ontario, Canada. Remote Sensing of Environment 113:668-679.

David Suzuki Foundation and Ontario Nature. 2011. Biodiversity in Ontario's Greenbelt. Toronto, ON and Vancouver, BC. 51 p.

Duro, D.C., Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A. and Han, T. 2007. Development of a large area biodiversity monitoring system driven by remote sensing. Progress in Physical Geography 31:235-260.

Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1995. A national ecological framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ecozone Analysis Branch. Ottawa, ON/Hull, QC. vii + 125 p.

Environment Canada. 2005. Narrative descriptions of terrestrial ecozones and ecoregions of Canada [online]. Environment Canada. (accessed 15 May, 2008).

ESTR Secretariat. In Prep. Boreal Cordillera Ecozone+ evidence for key findings summary. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystems Status and Trends 2010, Evidence for Key Findings Summary Report No. 5. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON.

Flannigan, M.D., Logan, K.A., Amiro, B.D., Skinner, W.R. and Stocks, B.J. 2005. Future area burned in Canada. Climatic Change 72:1-16.

Flannigan, M.D. and Wotton, B.M. 2001. Climate, weather and area burned. In Forest fires: behaviour and ecological effects. Edited by Johnson, E.A. and Miyanishi, K. Academic Press. San Diego, CA. pp. 335-357.

Flaspohler, D.J., Temple, S.A. and Rosenfield, R.N. 2001. Species-specific edge effects on nest success and breeding bird density in a forested landscape. Ecological Applications 11:32-46.

Fleishman, E. and Mac Nally, R. 2007. Measuring the response of animals to contemporary drivers of fragmentation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85:1080-1090.

Gilabert, M.A., Gandia, S. and Melia, J. 1996. Analyses of spectral biophysical relationships for a corn canopy. Remote Sensing of Environment 55:11-20.

Gillett, N.P., Weaver, A.J., Zwiers, F.W. and Flannigan, M.D. 2004. Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophysical Research Letters 31:L18211-.

Girardin, M.P. 2007. Interannual to decadal changes in area burned in Canada from 1781 to 1982 and the relationship to Northern Hemisphere land temperatures. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16:557-566.

Goetz, S., Bunn, A.G., Fiske, G.J., Houghton, R.A. and Woodwell, G.M. 2005. Satellite-observed photosynthetic trends across boreal North America associated with climate and fire disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:13521-13525.

Government of Ontario. 2005. Greenbelt Act, 2005. Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario. Assented to February 24, 2005. Last amendment: 2009, c. 12, Sched. L, s. 5.

Gurin, D. 2003. Understanding Sprawl. A citizen's guide. David Suzuki Foundation. Vancouver, BC. iv + 22 p.

Haila, Y. 2002. A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology. Ecological Applications 12:321-334.

Hebda, R.J., Gustavson, K., Golinski, K. and Calder, A.M. 2000. Burns bog ecosystem review synthesis report for Burns Bog, Fraser River Delta, south-western British Columbia, Canada. British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. Victoria, BC.

Heinsch, F.A., Zhao, M.S., Running, S.W., Kimball, J.S., Nemani, R.R., Davis, K.J., Bolstad, P.V., Cook, B.D., Desai, A.R., Ricciuto, D.M., Law, B.E., Oechel, W.C., Kwon, H., Luo, H.Y., Wofsy, S.C., Dunn, A.L., Munger, J.W., Baldocchi, D.D., Xu, L.K., Hollinger, D.Y., Richardson, A.D., Stoy, P.C., Siqueira, M.B.S., Monson, R.K., Burns, S.P. and Flanagan, L.B. 2006. Evaluation of remote sensing based terrestrial productivity from MODIS using regional tower eddy flux network observations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44:1908-1925.

Hollister, R.D., Webber, P.J. and Tweedie, C.E. 2005. The response of Alaskan arctic tundra to experimental warming: differences between short- and long-term responses. Global Change Biology 11:525-536.

Huete, A.R. and Jackson, R.D. 1987. Suitability of spectral indexes for evaluating vegetation characteristics on arid rangelands. Remote Sensing of Environment 23:213-&.

Huete, A.R. and Jackson, R.D. 1988. Soil and atmosphere influences on the spectra of partial canopies. Remote Sensing of Environment 25:89-105.

Javorek, S.K. and Grant, M.C. 2011. Trends in wildlife habitat capacity on agricultural land in Canada, 1986-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 14. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. vi + 46 p.

Kawabata, A., Ichii, K. and Yamaguchi, Y. 2001. Global monitoring of interannual changes in vegetation activities using NDVI and its relationships to temperature and precipitation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22:1377-1382.

Kerr, J.T. and Ostrovsky, M. 2003. From space to species: ecological applications for remote sensing. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:299-305.

Krezek-Hanes, C.C., Ahern, F., Cantin, A. and Flannigan, M.D. 2011. Trends in large fires in Canada, 1959-2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 6. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. v + 48 p.

Latifovic, R. and Pouliot, D. 2005. Multitemporal land cover mapping for Canada: methodology and products. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 31:347-363.

Latifovic, R., Trischenko, A.P., Chen, J., Park, W.B., Khlopenkov, K.V., Fernandes, R., Pouliot, D., Ungureanu, C., Lou, Y., Wang, S., Davidson, A. and Cihlar, J. 2005. Generating historical AVHRR 1 km baseline satellite data records over Canada suitable for climate change studies. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 31:324-346.

Lee, M., Fahrig, L., Freemark, K. and Currie, D.J. 2002. Importance of patch scale vs landscape scale on selected forest birds. Oikos 96:110-118.

Los, S.O., Collatz, G.J., Sellers, P.J., Malmstrom, C.M., Pollack, N.H., DeFries, R.S., Bounoua, L., Parris, M.T., Tucker, C.J. and Dazlich, D.A. 2000. A global 9-yr biophysical land surface dataset from NOAA AVHRR data. Journal of Hydrometeorology 1:183-199.

MacArthur, R.H. 1972. Geographical ecology: patterns in the distribution of species. Harper & Row. Princeton, NJ. xviii + 269 p.

Mackey, B.G., Bryan, J. and Randall, L. 2004. Australia's dynamic habitat template 2003. MODIS Vegetation Workshop II. University of Montana. Missoula, MT. Conference poster.

Manning, A.D., Lindenmayer, D.B. and Nix, H.A. 2004. Continua and Umwelt: novel perspectives on viewing landscapes. Oikos 104:621-628.

McKinney, M.L. 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity and conservation. BioScience 52:883-890.

Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 2005. Greenbelt plan. Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. 57 p.

Myneni, R.B., Keeling, C.D., Tucker, C.J., Asrar, G. and Nemani, R.R. 1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature 386:698-702.

Myneni, R.B., Tucker, C.J., Asrar, G. and Keeling, C.D. 1998. Interannual variations in satellite-sensed vegetation index data from 1981 to 1991. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 103:6145-6160.

Olthof, I. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Treeline vegetation composition and change in Canada's western Subarctic from AVHRR and canopy reflectance modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 114:805-815.

Olthof, I., Pouliot, D., Latifovic, R. and Chen, W.J. 2008. Recent (1986-2006) vegetation-specific NDVI trends in northern Canada from satellite data. Arctic 61:381-394.

Parisien, M.A., Peters, V.S., Wang, Y., Little, J.M., Bosch, E.M. and Stocks, B.J. 2006. Spatial patterns of forest fires in Canada, 1980-1999. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15:361-374.

Podur, J., Martell, D.L. and Knight, K. 2002. Statistical quality control analysis of forest fire activity in Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research/Revue canadienne de recherche forestière 32:195-205.

Pouliot, D., Latifovic, R. and Olthof, I. 2009. Trends in vegetation NDVI from 1 km AVHRR data over Canada for the period 1985-2006. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30:149-168.

Ries, L. and Sisk, T.D. 2004. A predictive model of edge effects. Ecology 85:2917-2926.

Santin-Janin, H., Garel, M., Chapuis, J.-L. and Pontier, D. 2009. Assessing the performance of NDVI as a proxy for plant biomass using non-linear models: a case study on the Kerguelen Archipelago. Polar Biology 32:861-871.

Skinner, W.R., Shabbar, A., Flannigan, M.D. and Logan, K. 2006. Large forest fires in Canada and the relationship to global sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research 111. doi:10.1029/2005JD006738.

Slayback, D.A., Pinzon, J.E., Los, S.O. and Tucker, C.J. 2003. Northern hemisphere photosynthetic trends 1982-99. Global Change Biology 9:1-15.

Statistics Canada. 2012. 2006 census: portrait of the Canadian population in 2006: subprovincial population dynamics [online]. (accessed 2010).

Sturm, M., Racine, C. and Tape, K. 2001. Climate change: increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature 411:546-547.

Tape, K., Sturm, M. and Racine, C. 2006. The evidence for shrub expansion in northern Alaska and the Pan-Arctic. Global Change Biology 12:686-702.

Tateishi, R. and Ebata, M. 2004. Analysis of phenological change patterns using 1982-2000 advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25:2287-2300.

Tucker, C.J. 1979. Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation. Remote Sensing of Environment 8:127-150.

Turner, W., Spector, S., Gardiner, N., Fladeland, M., Sterling, E. and Steininger, M. 2003. Remote sensing for biodiversity science and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:306-314.

Villard, M.A., Schmiegelow, F.K.A. and Trzcinsk, M.K. 2007. Short-term response of forest birds to experimental clearcut edges. Auk 124:828-840.

Walker, M.D., Wahren, C.H., Hollister, R.D., Henry, G.H.R., Ahlquist, L.E., Alatalo, J.M., Bret-Harte, M.S., Calef, M.P., Callaghan, T.V., Carroll, A.B., Epstein, H.E., Jónsdóttir, I.S., Klein, J.A., Magnússom, B., Molau, U., Oberbauer, S.F., Rewa, S.P., Robinson, C.H., Shaver, G.R., Suding, K.N., Thompson, C.C., Tolvanen, A., Totland, O., Turner, P.L., Tweedie, C.E., Webber, P.J. and Wookey, P.A. 2006. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:1342-1346.

Wilson, S.J. 2008. Ontario's wealth, Canada's future: appreciating the value of the greenbelt's eco-services. David Suzuki Foundation. Vancouver, BC. 70 p.

Wulder, M. and Nelson, T. 2003. EOSD land cover classification legend report: version 2. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. Victoria, BC. 81 p.

Wulder, M.A., Franklin, S.E., White, J.C., Linke, J. and Magnussen, S. 2006. An accuracy assessment framework for large-area land cover classification products derived from medium-resolution satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27:663-683.

Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Cranny, M.M., Hall, R.J., Luther, E., Beaudoin, A., Goodenough, D.G. and Dechka, J.A. 2008a. Monitoring Canada's forests. Part 1: completion of the EOSD land cover project. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 34:563-584.

Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Han, T., Coops, N.C., Cardille, J.A., Holland, T. and Grills, D. 2008b. Monitoring Canada's forests. Part 2: national forest fragmentation and pattern. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 34:563-584.

Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Magnussen, S. and McDonald, S. 2007. Validation of a large area land cover product using purpose-acquired airborne video. Remote Sensing of Environment 106:480-491.

Yang, W.Z., Huang, D., Tan, B., Stroeve, J.C., Shabanov, N.V., Knyazikhin, Y., Nemani, R.R. and Myneni, R.B. 2006a. Analysis of leaf area index and fraction of PAR absorbed by vegetation products from the terra MODIS sensor: 2000-2005. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44:1829-1842.

Yang, W.Z., Tan, B., Huang, D., Rautiainen, M., Shabanov, N.V., Wang, Y., Privette, J.L., Huemmrich, K.F., Fensholt, R., Sandholt, I., Weiss, M., Ahl, D.E., Gower, S.T., Nemani, R.R., Knyazikhin, Y. and Myneni, R.B. 2006b. MODIS leaf area index products: from validation to algorithm improvement. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44:1885-1898.

Zhang, X., Brown, R., Vincent, L., Skinner, W., Feng, Y. and Mekis, E. 2011. Canadian climate trends, 1950-2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 5. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. iv + 21 p.

Zhou, L., Tucker, C.J., Kaufmann, R.K., Slayback, D., Shabanov, N.V. and Myneni, R.B. 2001. Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 106:20,069-20,083.