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Arctic Ecozone+ Status and Trends Assessment

Appendix 1: Descriptions of surficial materials

Alluvial Deposits: stratified silt, sand, clay, and gravel; floodplain, delta, and fan deposits; in places overlies and includes glaciofluvial deposits

Alpine Complexes: rock, colluvium, and till; rock and Quaternary deposits complex in an area, characterized by alpine and glacial landforms

Coarse grained (Glacio)Lacustrine: sand, silt, and gravel; deposited as deltas, sheet sands, and lag deposits

Coarse grained (Glacio)Marine: sand and gravel; deposited as sheet sands, deltas, and extensive flights of beaches

Colluvial Blocks: Blocks, and rubble with sand and silt; derived from crystalline bedrock, medium grade metamorphic substrate, and cemented sandstone

Colluvial Fines: silt, clay, and fine sand; derived from substrate weakly consolidated shale and siltstone substrate

Colluvial Rubble: rubble and silt; derived from carbonate and consolidated fine clastic sedimentary rock substrate

Colluvial Sand: Sand and gravel; derived from poorly lithified sandstone and conglomerate substrate

Eolian Deposits: sand and minor silt; dunes, blowouts, and undulating plains; in most places overlies deltaic sediments, coarse lacustrine sediments, or glaciofluvial deposits

Fine grained (Glacio)Lacustrine: silt, and clay, locally containing stones; deposited as quiet water sediments

Fine grained (Glacio)Marine: dominantly silt and clay, locally containing stones; deposited as quiet water sediments

Glaciers: ice and minor morainal debris

Glaciofluvial Complex: sand and gravel and locally diamicton; undifferentiated ice contact stratified drift, and outwash; locally includes till and rock

Glaciofluvial Plain: sand and gravel; deposited as outwash sheets, valley trains, and terrace deposits

Lacustrine Mud: fluid silty clay and clayey silt; deposited as quiet water sediments'

Lacustrine Sand: sand and locally gravel; deposited as sheet sands, lags, and beaches

Lag (Glacio)Marine: sand, gravel, and pockets of finer sediment; thin to discontinuous sediment veneer and residual lag developed during marine submergence; includes areas of washed till and rock

Marine Mud: fluid silty clay and clayey silt; deposited as quiet water sediments

Marine Sand: sand and locally gravel; deposited as sheet sands, lags, and beaches

Organic Deposits: peat, muck and minor inorganic sediments; large bog, fen, and swamp areas where organic fill masks underlying surficial materials; geneally >2 m thick

Quaternary Volcanics: consolidated lava, breccia and tephra; dominantly basaltic and andesitic in composition; includes flows, volcanic piles, and cinder cones

Till Blanket: thick and continuous till

Till Veneer: thin and discontinuous till; may include extensive areas of rock outcrop

Undivided: rock with minor Quaternary deposits

Source: Geological Survey of Canada (1994)

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