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Atlantic Maritime Ecozone evidence for key findings summary

References

Footnotes

Footnote 1

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Footnote 4

Eaton, S. 2013. Atlantic Maritime Ecozone+ status and trends assessment. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Ecozone+ Report. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. Draft report.

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Footnote 5

Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1995. A national ecological framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ecozone Analysis Branch. Ottawa, ON/Hull, QC. vii + 125 p.

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Rankin, R., Austin, M. and Rice, J. 2011. Ecological classification system for the ecosystem status and trends report. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 1. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. ii + 14 p.

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Footnote 10

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Footnote 12

Environment Canada. 2009. Unpublished analysis of population data by Ecozone+ from: Statistics Canada Human Activity and the Environment Series, 1971-2006. Community profile data was used to make adjustments due to differences in the ecozone/Ecozone+ boundary.

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Footnote 13

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Footnote 18

Rowe, J.S. 1972. Forest regions of Canada. Canadian Forestry Service Publication No. 1300. Publishing Division, Information Canada. Ottawa, ON. x + 172 p.

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Lee, P., Gysbers, J.D. and Stanojevic, Z. 2006. Canada's forest landscape fragments: a first approximation (a Global Forest Watch Canada report). Global Forest Watch Canada. Edmonton, AB. 97 p.

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Footnote 22

Ministère des Ressources naturelles. 2005. Système hiérarchique de classification écologique du territoire. Direction des inventaires forestiers, Ministère des ressources naturelles, Gouvernement du Québec. Québec, QC.

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Ministère des Ressources naturelles et Faune. 2009. Statistiques forestières 2009. Updated from Ministère des Ressources naturelles, 2002. Unpublished data.

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Ministère des Ressources naturelles. 2002. Rapport synthèse sur l'état des forêts Québécoises 1995-1999. Gouvernement du Québec. Charlesbourg, QC. 8 p.

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Footnote 26

Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network. 2007. Climate and deciduous forests in Maritime Canada [online]. Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network: Atlantic. (accessed 3 August, 2007).

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Footnote 27

Anderson, M.G., Vickery, B., Gorman, M., Gratton, L., Morrison, M., Maillet, J., Olivero, A., Ferree, C., Morse, D., Kehm, G., Rosalska, K., Khanna, S. and Bernstein, S. 2006. The Northern Appalachian/Acadian Ecoregion: conservation assessment status and trends: 2006. The Nature Conservancy Eastern Regional Science in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy of Canada: Atlantic and Quebec Regions. Boston, MA. 34 p.

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Footnote 28

Boucher, Y., Arseneault, D. et Sirois, L. 2009. La forêt préindustrielle du Bas-Saint-Laurent et sa transformation (1820-2000) : implications pour l'aménagement écosystémique. Le Naturaliste Canadien 133:60-69.

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Footnote 29

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Footnote 30

Dettmers, R. 2004. Blueprint for the design and delivery of bird conservation in the Atlantic northern forest [online]. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (accessed 15 December, 2009).

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Footnote 31

Busby, D., Austin-Smith, S., Curley, R., Diamond, A., Duffy, T., Elderkin, M., Makepeace, S., Diamond, D., Melanson, R., Staicer, C. and Whittam, B. 2006. Partners in Flight Canada: Maritime Canada landbird conservation plan. Technical Report Series No. 449. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. Sackville, NB. 43 p.

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Footnote 32

COSEWIC. 2008. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Canada warbler Wilsonia canadensis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. vi + 35 p.

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Footnote 33

Sleep, D.J.H., Drever, M.C. and Szuba, K.J. 2009. Potential role of spruce budworm in range-wide decline of Canada warbler. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:546-555.

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Footnote 34

Butcher, G.S. and Niven, D.K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas Bird Count and the Breeding Bird Survey to determine the continental status and trends of North American birds. National Audubon Society. Ivyland, PA. 34 p.

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Footnote 35

Bird Studies Canada. 2008. Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime provinces [online]. (accessed 23 October, 2009).

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Footnote 36

COSEWIC. 2009. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Bicknell's thrush Catharus bicknelli in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. vii + 44 p.

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Footnote 37

Rimmer, C.C., McFarland, K.P., Ellison, W.G. and Goetz, J.E. 2001. Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli). In The birds of North America online. Edited by Poole, A. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY.

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Footnote 38

McFarland, K.P., Rimmer, C.C., Frey, S.J.K., Faccio, S.D. and Collins, B.B. 2008. Demography, ecology and conservation of Bicknell's thrush in Vermont, with a special focus on the northeastern highlands. Technical Report No. 08-03. Vermont Center for Ecostudies. Norwich, VT.

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Footnote 39

COSEWIC. 2009. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Bicknell's thrush Catharus bicknelli in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 44 p.

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Footnote 40

Campbell, G., Whittam, B. and Robertson, G. 2008. High elevation landbird program 6-year report. Bird Studies Canada. Port Rowan, ON. 18 p.

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Footnote 41

King, D., Lambert, J., Buonaccorsi, J. and Prout, L. 2008. Avian population trends in the vulnerable montane forests of the Northern Appalachians, USA. Biodiversity and Conservation 17:2691-2700.

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Footnote 42

Downes, C., Blancher, P. and Collins, B. 2011. Landbird trends in Canada, 1968-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 12. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. x + 94 p.

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Footnote 43

USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 2010. The North American Breeding Bird Survey [online]. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior.

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Footnote 44

Rosenberg, K.V. and Hodgman, T.P. 2000. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: physiographic area 28: eastern spruce-hardwood forest. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY. 48 p.

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Footnote 45

Trombulak, S.C., Anderson, M.G., Baldwin, R.F., Beazley, K., Ray, J.C., Reining, C., Woolmer, G., Bettigole, C., Forbes, G. and Gratton, L. 2008. The Northern Appalachian/Acadian Ecoregion: priority locations for conservation action. Two Countries, One Forest Special Report No. 1. The Science Working Group of Two Countries, One Forest. Warner, NH. ii + 58 p.

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Footnote 46

Milton, R. 2008. Personal communication. Information on wetland mapping and assessment methodologies in Atlantic Canada. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources. Kentville, NS.

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Footnote 47

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Footnote 48

Wiken, E., Smith, W.G.B., Cinq-Mars, J., Latsch, C. and Gauthier, D. 2003. Habitat integrity in Canada: wildlife conservation in Canada. Background paper for the national conference on guidelines and tools for the evaluation of Natura 2000 sites in France. Wildlife Habitat Canada. Montpellier, France, March 3-5, 2003. 30 p.

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Footnote 49

Rubec, C.D.A. and Hanson, A.R. 2009. Wetland mitigation and compensation: Canadian experience. Wetlands Ecology and Management 17:3-14.

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Footnote 50

Fast, M., Collins, B. and Gendron, M. 2011. Trends in breeding waterfowl in Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 8. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. v + 37 p.

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Footnote 51

Lepage, C. and Bordage, D. 2003. The American black duck. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Quebec Region. Québec, QC.

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Footnote 52

Longcore, J.R., McAuley, D.G., Hepp, G.R. and Rhymer, J.M. 2000. American black duck (Anas rubripes). In The birds of North America online. Edited by Poole, A. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY.

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Footnote 53

Petrie, M.J., Drobney, R.D. and Sears, D.T. 2000. Mallard and black duck breeding parameters in New Brunswick: a test of the reproductive rate hypothesis. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:832-838.

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Footnote 54

Mank, J.E., Carlson, J.E. and Brittingham, M.C. 2004. A century of hybridization: decreasing genetic distance between American black ducks and mallards. Conservation Genetics 5:395-403.

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Footnote 55

Kirby, R.E., Sargeant, G.A. and Shutler, D. 2004. Haldane's rule and American black duck x mallard hybridization. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1827-1831.

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Footnote 56

Rhymer, J.M. 2006. Extinction by hybridization and introgression in anatine ducks. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52:583-585.

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Footnote 57

Environment Canada. 1973. Inventory of Canadian freshwater lakes. Inland Waters Directorate, Water Resources Branch. Ottawa, ON. 34 p.

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Footnote 58

Burridge, M. and Mandrak, N. 2009. Ecoregion description: 118: Northeast US and Southeast Canada Atlantic drainages [online]. In Freshwater ecoregions of the world. The Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund.

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Footnote 59

Burridge, M. and Mandrak, N. 2009. Ecoregion description: 115: Canadian Atlantic Islands [online]. In Freshwater ecoregions of the world. The Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund. (accessed 21 February, 2009).

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Footnote 60

Burridge, M. and Mandrak, N. 2009. Ecoregion description: 119: Scotia -- Fundy [online]. In Freshwater ecoregions of the world. The Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund. (accessed 21 February, 2009).

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Footnote 61

Environment Canada. 2010. Hydrology of Canada [online].(accessed 1 March, 2009).

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Footnote 62

Cannon, A., Lai, T. and Whitfield, P. 2011. Climate-driven trends in Canadian streamflow, 1961-2003. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 19. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. Draft report.

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Footnote 63

Monk, W.A. and Baird, D.J. 2011. Biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 19. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. Draft report.

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Footnote 64

Eaton, S.T. and Boates, J.S. 2002. Assessing the threats to coastal plain flora in the Tusket River watershed. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources. Kentville, NS.

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Footnote 65

Canadian Dam Association. 2003. Dams in Canada. International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD). Montréal, QC. CD-ROM.

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Footnote 66

Hill, N.M. and Blaney, S. 2010. Exotic and invasive vascular plants of the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. In Assessment of species diversity in the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. Edited by McAlpine, D.F. and Smith, I.M. NRC Research Press. Ottawa, ON. Chapter 11. pp. 215-232.

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Footnote 67

COSEWIC. 2012. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the plymouth gentian Sabatia kennedyana in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. xi + 46 p.

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Footnote 68

COSEWIC. 2012. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the pink coreopsis Coreopsis rosea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. xii + 42 p.

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Footnote 69

Keddy, P.A. and Wisheu, I.C. 1989. Ecology, biogeography, and conservation of coastal plain plants: some general principles from the study of Nova Scotian wetlands. RHODORA 91:72-94.

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Footnote 70

Richardson, S.M., Hanson, J.M. and Locke, A. 2002. Effects of impoundment and water-level fluctuations on macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities of a dammed tidal river. Aquatic Ecology 36:493-510.

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Footnote 71

Hanson, J.M. and Locke, A. 2000. The status of the dwarf wedgemussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 114:271-278.

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Footnote 72

Neily, P., McCurdy, D., Stewart, B. and Quigley, E. 2004. Coastal forest communities of the Nova Scotian eastern shore ecodistrict No. 74. Ecosystem Management Group, Forest Management Planning, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources. 26 p.

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Footnote 73

Daigle, R.J. (ed.). 2006. Impacts of sea-level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. 611 p.

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Footnote 74

Environment Canada. 2003. Salt marsh conservation and restoration [online]. Environment Canada. (accessed 7 March, 2008).

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Footnote 75

Hanson, A., Berube, D., Forbes, D., O'Carroll, S., Ollerhead, J. and Olsen, L. 2006. Impacts of sea-level rise and residential development on salt-marsh area in southeastern New Brunswick, 1944-2001. In Impacts of sea-level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Edited by Daigle, R.J. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. Chapter 4.6.3. pp. 408-421.

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Footnote 76

CBCL Limited. 2009. The 2009 state of Nova Scotia's coast: technical report. Edited by Adamson, J., Conrad, T.S., Huston, J., Mitchell, D. and McKeane, S.W. Nova Scotia Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture and Nova Scotia Provincial Oceans Network. Halifax, NS. 245 p.

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Footnote 77

DFO. 2009. Does eelgrass (Zostera marina) meet the criteria as an ecologically significant species? Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2009/018. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Moncton, NB. 11 p.

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Footnote 78

Waycott, M., Duarte, C.M., Carruthers, T.J.B., Orth, R.J., Dennison, W.C., Olyarnik, S., Calladine, A., Fourqurean, J.W., Heck, K.L., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Short, F.T. and Williams, S.L. 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:12377-12381.

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Footnote 79

Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans. 2008. Fifth report of the Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans to the House of Commons. Government of Canada. Ottawa, ON. 2 p.

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Footnote 80

Hanson, A.R. 2004. Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in eastern Canada. Technical Report Series No. 412. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. Sackville, NB. 40 p.

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Footnote 81

Short, F.T. 2008. Report to the Cree Nation of Chisasibi on the status of eelgrass in James Bay. Jackson Estuarine Laboratory. Durham, NH. 30 p.

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Footnote 83

Williams, S.L. 2007. Introduced species in seagrass ecosystems: status and concerns. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 350:89-110.

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Footnote 84

Sharp, G. and Semple, R. 2004. Status of eelgrass beds in south-western Nova Scotia. In Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Eastern Canada. Edited by Hanson, A.R. Technical Report Series No. 412. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. Sackville, NB. p. 8.

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Footnote 85

Seymour, N.R., Miller, A.G. and Garbary, D.J. 2002. Decline of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) associated with a collapse of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a Nova Scotia estuary. Helgoland Marine Research 56:198-202.

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Footnote 86

Chapman, A. and Smith, J. 2004. Quantifying the rapid decline of eelgrass beds on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia between 1992 and 2002. In Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in eastern Canada. Edited by Hanson, A.R. Technical Report Series No. 412. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. Sackville, NB. p. 9.

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Footnote 87

Locke, A. and Hanson, J.M. 2004. Changes in eelgrass in southern Gulf of St. Lawrence estuaries. In Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Eastern Canada. Edited by Hanson, A.R. Technical Report Series No. 412. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. Sackville, NB. pp. 10-12.

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Footnote 88

Martel, M.-C., Provencher, L., Grant, C., Ellefsen, H.-F. and Pereira, S. 2009. Distribution and description of eelgrass beds in Quebec. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2009/050. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Ottawa, ON. viii + 37 p.

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Footnote 89

Morrison, R.I.G. 1977. Use of the Bay of Fundy by shorebirds. In Fundy tidal power and the environment: proceedings of a workshop on the environmental implications of Fundy tidal power. Wolfville, NS, 4-5 November, 1976. Edited by Daborn, G.R. Acadia University Institute. Wolfville, NS. pp. 187-199.

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Footnote 90

Morrison, R.I.G. and Harrington, B. 1979. Critical shorebird resources in James Bay and eastern North America. In Transactions of the 44th North American Wildlife Natural Resources Conference. Wildlife Management Institute. Washington, D.C. pp. 498-507.

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Footnote 91

Hicklin, P.W. 1987. The migration of shorebirds in the Bay of Fundy. Wilson Bulletin 99:540-570.

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Footnote 92

Morrison, R.I.G., Downes, C. and Collins, B. 1994. Population trends of shorebirds on fall migration in eastern Canada 1974-1991. Wilson Bulletin 106:431-447.

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Footnote 93

Morrison, R.I.G., Aubry, Y., Butler, R.W., Beyersbergen, G.W., Downes, C., Donaldson, G.M., Gratto-Trevor, C.L., Hicklin, P.W., Johnston, V.H. and Ross, R.K. 2001. Declines in North American shorebird populations. Wader Study Group Bulletin 94:34-38.

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Footnote 94

Morrison, R.I.G. and Hicklin, P. 2001. Recent trends in shorebird populations in the Atlantic Provinces. Bird Trends 8:16-19.

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Footnote 95

Hicklin, P.W. 2001. A comparison of roost counts in 1970s and 1990s in the Bay of Fundy. Bird Trends 8:19-21.

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Footnote 96

Bart, J., Brown, S., Harrington, B. and Morrison, R.I.G. 2007. Survey trends of North American shorebirds: population declines or shifting distribution? Journal of Avian Biology 38:73-82.

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Footnote 97

Gratto-Trevor, C., Morrison, R.I.G., Collins, B., Rausch, J. and Johnston, V. 2011. DO NOT USE - USE 70039 Trends in Canadian shorebirds. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 13. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. iv + 32 p.

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COSEWIC. 2007. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the red knot Calidris canutus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. viii + 58 p.

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Footnote 99

USFWS. 2009. Flyways [online]. US Fish and Wildlife Service. (accessed 23 March, 2009).

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Footnote 100

Eadie, J.M., Savard, J.P. and Mallory, M.L. 2000. Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica). In The birds of North America online. Edited by Poole, A. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY.

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Footnote 101

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Footnote 102

O'Carroll, S., Berube, D., Hanson, A., Forbes, D., Ollerhead, J. and Olsen, L. 2006. Temporal changes in beach and dune habitat in southeastern New Brunswick, 1944-2001. In Impacts of sea-level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Edited by Daigle, R.J. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. Chapter 4.6.4. pp. 421-426.

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Footnote 103

Ferland, C.L. and Haig, S.M. 2002. 2001 International Piping Plover Census. U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center. Corvallis, OR. 293 p.

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Amirault-Langlais, D.L. 2012. Data on hatching success of piping plover in eastern Canada. Unpublished data.

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Footnote 105

Goossen, J.P. 2007. Hinterland who's who: piping plover (factsheet) [online]. Environment Canada and Canadian Wildlife Federation.

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Footnote 106

Environment Canada. 2006. Recovery strategy for the piping plover (Charadrius melodus melodus) in Canada [Proposed]. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 40 p.

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Footnote 107

Forbes, D.L., Parkes, G.S. and Ketch, L.A. 2006. Sea-level rise and regional subsidence. In Impacts of sea level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Edited by Daigle, R.J. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. Chapter 4.1. pp. 34-94.

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Footnote 108

Elliott-Smith, E., Haig, S.M. and Powers, B.M. 2009. Data from the 2006 International Piping Plover Census. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 426. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior. Reston, VA. 332 p.

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Footnote 109

Government of New Brunswick. 2002. A coastal areas protection policy for New Brunswick. The Sustainable Planning Branch, New Brunswick Department of the Environment and Local Government. Fredericton, NB. 18 p.

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Footnote 110

Bourque, A. and Simonet, G. 2008. Quebec. In From impacts to adaptation: Canada in a changing climate 2007. Edited by Lemmen, D.S., Warren, F.J., Lacroix, J. and Bush, E. Government of Canada. Ottawa, ON. Chapter 5. pp. 171-226.

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Footnote 111

Shaw, J., Taylor, R.B., Forbes, D.L., Ruz, M.H. and Solomon, S. 1998. Sensitivity of the coasts of Canada to sea-level rise. Bulletin No. 505. Geological Survey of Canada. 79 p. + map.

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Footnote 112

McCulloch M.M., Forbes, D.L., Shaw, R.W. and CAFF-A041 Scientific Team. 2002. Coastal impact of climate change and sea-level rise on Prince Edward Island: synthesis report. Open File 4261. Geological Survey of Canada. 62 p. + CD-ROM.

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Footnote 113

Government of Prince Edward Island. 2003. State of the environment. PEI Department of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Environment. Charlottetown, PEI. ii + 61 p.

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Footnote 114

Marine Environmental Data Service. 2008. Canadian tides and water levels data archive [online]. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON.

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Footnote 115

Savard, J.-P., Bernatchez, P., Morneau, F., Saucier, F., Gachon, P., Senville, S., Fraser, C. and Jolivet, Y. 2008. Étude de la sensibilité des côtes et de la vulnérabilité des communautés du golfe du Saint-Laurent aux impacts des changements climatiques - synthèse des résultats. Ouranos. Rimouski, QC. 48 p.

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Footnote 116

Bernatchez, P., Fraser, C., Friesinger, S., Jolivet, Y., Dugas, S., Drejza, S. and Morissette, A. 2008. Sensibilité des côtes et vulnérabilité des communautés du golfe du Saint-Laurent aux impacts des changements climatiques. Rapport de recherche remis au Consortium Ouranos et au FACC. Laboratoire de dynamique et de gestion intégrée des zones côtières, Université du Québec. Rimouski, QC. 256 p.

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Footnote 117

Forbes, D.L., Parkes, G.S., Manson, G.K. and Ketch, L.A. 2004. Storms and shoreline retreat in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine Geology 210:169-204.

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Footnote 118

Bernatchez, P. and Dubois., J.M.M. 2008. Seasonal quantification of coastal processes and cliff erosion on fine sediments shoreline in a cold temperate climate, North Shore of the St. Lawrence Maritime Estuary, Quebec. Journal of Coastal Research 24:169-180.

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Footnote 119

Environment Canada. 2008. Changes in lake ice signal a changing climate. NatureWatch and Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 8 p.

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