Monitoring programs are required to detect and measure changes in biodiversity, to better understand functional linkages in ecosystems, and to evaluate the success or failure of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use policies and programs.
There are currently many monitoring programs underway, including programs that monitor water and air quality, wildlife population and species trends, climate, disease outbreaks, fire and successions. Monitoring is conducted by government and non-government agencies, often independently of each other.
Instances in which species and ecosystems are significantly affected by human activities are on the rise. For example, industrial and domestic acid emissions have increased atmospheric acidity, which, through deposition, has affected the acidity of thousands of water bodies and altered the habitat of many aquatic species. Effective monitoring programs must be integrated and ecologically-based in order to determine and implement appropriate management practices.
Develop and implement monitoring programs to:
Develop and use biodiversity indicators that are meaningful, scientifically defensible, practical and compatible with regional, provincial, territorial, national and international programs.