Symbol of the Government of Canada

References

OVERVIEW

About this assessment

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Environment Canada. 2006. Biodiversity Outcomes Framework for Canada. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. 8 p.
http://www.biodivcanada.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=F14D37B9-1

2.    Federal–Provincial–Territorial Biodiversity Working Group. 1995. Canadian Biodiversity Strategy: Canada's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Environment Canada, Biodiversity Convention Office. Ottawa, ON. 77 p.
http://www.biodivcanada.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=560ED58E-1

3.    United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Conference of the Parties. 2001. COP 6 Decision VI/26: strategic plan for the Convention on Biological Diversity [online]. United Nations Environment Programme.
http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7200

4.    Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1995. A national ecological framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri–Food Canada, Research Branch, Centre of Land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ecozone Analysis Branch. Ottawa, ON. 117 p. Report and national map at 1:7 500 000 scale.

5.    Rankin, R., Austin, M. and Rice, J. 2010. Ecological classification system for the ecosystem status and trends report. Canadian Biodiveristy: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 1. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

BIOMES

1. Forests

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Brandt, J.P. 2009. The extent of the North American boreal zone. Environmental Reviews 17:101-161.

2.    Natural Resources Canada. 2009. Biodiversity [online]. Natural Resources Canada. http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/article/biodiversity (accessed 10 February, 2010).

3.    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2001. Global forest resources assessment 2000. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper No. 140. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. 479 p.

4.    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Global forest resources assessment 2010. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper No. 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. 340 p.

5.    National Forest Inventory. 2010. Unpublished analysis of data by ecozone+ from: Canada's national forest inventory standard reports [online]. https://nfi.nfis.org/standardreports.php?lang=en (accessed 22 March, 2010).

6.    Girard, F., Payette, S. and Gagnon, R. 2008. Rapid expansion of lichen woodlands within the closed-crown boreal forest zone over the last 50 years caused by stand disturbances in eastern Canada. Journal of Biogeography 35:529-537.

7.    Hearnden, K.W., Millson, S.V. and Wilson, W.C. 1992. A report on the status of forest regeneration. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Toronto, ON. 117 p.

8.    Manitoba Conservation – Forestry Branch. 2009. Manitoba forest inventory: area by cover type in the Pineland forest management unit, 1970-2000. Unpublished data.

9.    Duchesne, L. and Ouimet, R. 2008. Population dynamics of tree species in southern Quebec, Canada: 1970-2005. Forest Ecology and Management 255:3001-3012.

10.    Boucher, Y., Arseneault, D. and Sirois, L. 2006. Logging-induced change (1930-2002) of a preindustrial landscape at the northern range limit of northern hardwoods, eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestiere 36:505-517.

11.    Ahern, F., Frisk, J., Latifovic, R. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Monitoring ecosystems remotely: a selection of trends measured from satellite observations of Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 17. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

12.    Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond, R.E.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.E., Carr, G.M., Chanson, J.S., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi, p., Gregory, R., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Morcillo, M.H., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quder, S., Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vie, J.-C. and Watson, R. 2010. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164-1168. doi:10.1126/science.1187512.

13.    Environment Canada. 2009. National inventory report: greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada, 1990-2007. Government of Canada. Ottawa, ON. 620 p.

14.    Natural Resources Canada. 2008. Statistical data: forest management [online]. Natural Resources Canada. http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/statsprofile (accessed 12 May, 2009).

15.    National Forest Inventory. 2010. Canada's national forest inventory standard reports: area (1000 ha) of forest and non-forest land by terrestrial ecozone in Canada [online]. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. https://nfi.nfis.org/publications/standard_reports/NFI_T4_FOR_AREA_en.html (accessed 13 May, 2010).

16.    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2009. State of the world's forests 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. 152 p.

17.    Austin, M., Buffett, D., Nicolson, D., Stevens, V. and Scudder, G.G.E. 2008. Taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in British Columbia. Biodiversity B.C. Victoria, BC. 268 p.

18.    Ontario Biodiversity Council. 2010. State of Ontario's biodiversity 2010. A report of the Ontario Biodiversity Council. Peterborough, ON. 121 p.

19.    Gamache, I. and Payette, S. 2004. Height growth response of tree line black spruce to recent climate warming across the forest-tundra of eastern Canada. Journal of Ecology 92:835-845.

20.    Gamache, I. and Payette, S. 2005. Latitudinal response of subarctic tree lines to recent climate change in eastern Canada. Journal of Biogeography 32:849-862.

21.    Payette, S. 2007. Contrasted dynamics of northern Labrador tree lines caused by climate change and migrational lag. Ecology 88:770-780.

22.    Danby, R.K. and Hik, D.S. 2007. Evidence of recent treeline dynamics in southwest Yukon from aerial photographs. Arctic 60:411-420.

23.    Olthof, I. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Treeline vegetation composition and change in Canada's western subarctic from AVHRR and canopy reflectance modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 114:805-815.

24.    Pisaric, M.F.J., Carey, S.K., Kokelj, S.V. and Youngblut, D. 2007. Anomalous 20th century tree growth, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L05714.1-L05714.5.

25.    Harsch, M.A., Hulme, p.E., McGlone, M.S. and Duncan, R.P. 2009. Are treelines advancing? A global meta-analysis of treeline responce to climate warming. Ecology Letters 12:1040-1049.

26.    Long, J.A., Nelson, T.A. and Wulder, M.A. 2010. Characterizing forest fragmentation: distinguishing change in composition from configuration. Applied Geography
30:426-435.

27.    Lee, P.G., Smith, W., Hanneman, M., Gysbers, J.D. and Cheng, R. 2010. Atlas of Canada's intact forest landscapes. Global Forest Watch Canada 10th Anniversary Publication No. 1. Edmonton, AB. 70 p.

28.    Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute. 2009. The status of biodiversity in Alberta-Pacific forest industries' forest management agreement area: preliminary assessment 2009. Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute. Edmonton, AB. 23 p.

29.    Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1995. A national ecological framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Centre of Land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ecozone Analysis Branch. Ottawa, ON. 117 p. Report and national map at 1:7 500 000 scale.

30.    Fleishman, E. and Mac Nally, R. 2007. Measuring the response of animals to contemporary drivers of fragmentation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85:1080-1090.

31.    Coops, N.C., Gillanders, S.N., Wulder, M.A., Gergel, S.E., Nelson, T. and Goodwin, N.R. 2010. Assessing changes in forest fragmentation following infestation using time series Landsat imagery. Forest Ecology and Management 259:2355-2365.

32.    Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Andrew, M.E., Seitz, N.E. and Coops, N.C. 2009. Forest fragmentation, structure and age characteristics as a legacy of forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 258:1938-1949.

33.    Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Machtans, C.S. and Hannon, S.J. 1997. Are boreal birds resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community responses. Ecology 1914-1932.

34.    Jalkotzy, J.G., Ross, p.I. and Nasserden, M.D. 1997. The effects of linear developments on wildlife: a review of selected scientific literature. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Calgary, AB. 132 p.

35.    Hilbert, J., Wiensczyk, A. and . 2007. Old-growth definitions and management: a literature review. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 8:15-31.

36.    Timoney, K.P. 2003. The changing disturbance regime of the boreal forest of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Forestry Chronicle 79:502-516.

37.    BC Ministry of Forests. 2003. Old growth forests. British Columbia, Canada. Fact Sheet. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Victoria, BC.

38.    BC Ministry of Environment. 2006. Population and economic activity: land cover status of BC's coastal forests. In Alive and inseparable: British Columbia's coastal environment 2006. State of Environment Reporting Office. Victoria, BC. Chapter 1.8. pp. 48-53.

39.    Pannozza, L. and Coleman, R. 2008. GPI forest headline indicators for Nova Scotia. GPI Atlantic. 54 p.

40.    Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources. 2009. Forest inventory. Unpublished data.

41.    Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. 2010. Unpublished analysis of data by ecozone+ from: Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. 2009. Le portrait de l'évolution de la forêt publique sous aménagement du Québec méridional des années 1970 aux années 2000. Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune, Forêt Québec,. Québec. 142 p.

2. Grasslands

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Heidenreich, B. 2009. What are global temperate grasslands worth? A case for their protection: a review of current research on their total economic value. The World Temperate Grasslands Conservation Initiative. Vancouver, BC. 51 p.

2.    Gauthier, D.A., Lafon, A., Toombs, T.P., Hoth, J. and Wiken, E. 2003. Grasslands: toward a North American conservation strategy. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina, Regina, SK, and Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Montreal, QC. 99 p.

3.    White, R., Murray, S. and Rohweder, M. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: grassland ecosystem. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 69 p.

4.    Riley, J.L., Green, S.E. and Brodribb, K.E. 2007. A conservation blueprint for Canada's prairies and parklands. Nature Conservancy of Canada. Toronto, ON. 226 p. and DVD-ROM.

5.    Koper, N., Mozel, K.E. and Henderson, D.C. 2010. Recent declines in northern tall-grass prairies and effects of patch structure on community persistence. Biological Conservation 143:220-229. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.006.

6.    Watmough, M.D. and Schmoll, M.J. 2007. Environment Canada's Prairie and Northern Region habitat monitoring program phase II: recent habitat trends in the Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. Technical Report Series No. 493. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Edmonton, AB. 135 p.

7.    Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Agri-geomatics programs and services. Derived from census of agriculture 2006 data. [online]. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. http://www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFCAAC/displayafficher.do?id=1226330737632&lang=eng (accessed 8 July, 2008).

8.    Samson, F.B., Knopf, F.L. and Ostlie, W.R. 2004. Great Plains ecosystems: past, present, and future. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:6-15.

9.    Joyce, J. and Morgan, J.P. 1989. Manitoba's tall-grass prairie conservation project. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture. August, 1988. Proceeding of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference, held August 7-11, 1988. Edited by Bragg, T.B. and Stubberndieck, J. University of Nebraska Printing. Lincoln, NE.

10.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Natural Heritage Information Center (NHIC) database. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Peterborough, ON.

11.    Grasslands Conservation Council of British Columbia. 2004. B.C. grasslands mapping project: a conservation risk assessment final report. Grasslands Conservation Council of British Columbia. Kamloops, BC. 108 p.

12.    British Columbia Ministry of Environment. 2007. Environmental trends in British Columbia: 2007. Government of British Columbia. Victoria, BC. 352 p.

13.    Lea, T. 2008. Historical (pre-settlement) ecosystems of the Okanagan Valley and lower Similkameen Valley of British Columbia – pre-European contact to the present. Davidsonia 19:3-36.

14.    Watts, F.B. 1969. The natural vegetation of the southern great plains of Canada. In Vegetation, soils and wildlife. Edited by Nelson, J.G. and Chambers, M.J. Methuen Publications. Toronto, ON. Chapter 5. pp. 93-111.

15.    Samson, F. and Knopf, F. 1994. Prairie conservation in North America. Bioscience 44:418-421.

16.    Bakowsky, W.D. 1993. A review and assessment of prairie, oak savannah and woodland in Site Regions 7 and 6 (Southern Region). Gore and Storrie Ltd., Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southern Region. Aurora, ON. 89 p.

17.    Grasslands Conservation Council of British Columbia. 2009. B.C. historic grassland distribution. Grasslands Conservation Council of British Columbia.

18.    Ontario Tallgrass Prairie and Savanna Association. Historical extent of prairie and savannah vegetation in southern Ontario. Tallgrass and savanna in Ontario [online]. http://www.tallgrassontario.org/TS_SAR.htm (accessed 5 May 2010).

19.    Scott, J.M., Davis, F.W., McGhie, R.G., Wright, R.G., Groves, C. and Estes, J. 2001. Nature reserves: do they capture the full range of America's biological diversity? Ecological Applications 11:999-1007.

20.    Davies, H. 2008. Data on range conditions in Saskachewan. Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Unpublished data.

21.    Willoughby, M. 2008. Data on range conditions in Alberta. Alberta Sustainable Resouce Development. Unpublished data.

22.    Canadian Wildlife Service. 2007. Breeding Bird Survey in Canada [online]. Environment Canada. http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/nwrc-cnrf/Default.asp?lang=En&n=416B57CA (accessed 20 October, 2009).

23.    Downes, C., Blancher, P. and Collins, B. 2010. Landbird trends in Canada, 1968-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 12. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

24.    Sauer, J.R., Hines, J.E. and Fallon, J. 2008. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2007. [online]. U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/ (accessed 20 October, 2009).

25.    North American Bird Conservation Initiative, U.S. Committee (NABCI-US). 2009. The state of the birds, United States of America, 2009. U.S. Department of Interior. Washington, DC. 36 p.

26.    Government of Canada. 1996. The state of Canada's environment. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 817 p.

27.    Thorpe, J. 2009. Unpublished analysis of source data from: Thorpe, J. 2007. Saskatchewan rangeland ecosystems, publication 1: ecoregions and ecosites. Saskatchewan Research Council Pub. No. 11881-1E07. Saskatchewan Prairie Conservation Action Plan. 40 p.

28.    Forest Practices Board. 2007. The effect of range practices on grasslands: a test case for upper grasslands in the south central interior of British Columbia. Special Investigation Report No. 19. Forest Practices Board. Victoria, BC. 59 p.

29.    Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Washington State Agricultural Experiment Station. Pullman, WA. 131 p.

30.    Gayton, D. 2004. Native and non-native plant species in grazed grasslands of British Columbia's Southern Interior. B.C. Journal of Ecosystems and Management 5:51-59.

31.    Peart, B. 2008. Life in a working landscape: towards a conservation strategy for the world's temperate grasslands. A record of the World Temperate Grasslands Conservation Initiative Workshop, Hohhot, China – June 28 and 29, 2008. Temperate Grasslands Conservation Initiative. Vancouver, BC. 21 p.

32.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosytems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 100 p.

33.    Robertson, K.R., Anderson, R.C. and Schwartz, M.W. 1997. The tallgrass prairie mosaic. In Conservation In highly fragmented landscapes. Edited by Schwartz, M.W. Chapman and Hall. New York, NY. pp. 55-87.

34.    Nuzzo, V.A. 1986. Extent and status of Midwest oak savanna: presettlement and 1985. Natural Areas Journal 6:6-36.

3. Wetlands

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    National Wetlands Working Group. 1997. The Canadian wetland classification system. 2nd edition. Edited by Warner, B.G. and Rubec, C.D.A. The Wetlands Research Centre, University of Waterloo. Waterloo, ON. 68 p.

2.    National Wetlands Working Group. 1988. Wetlands of Canada. Ecological Land Classification Series No. 24. Sustainable Development Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON and Polyscience Publications Inc., Montreal, QC. Ottawa, ON. 452 p.

3.    Davidson, I., Vanderkam, R. and Padilla, M. 1999. Review of wetland inventory information in North America. In Global review of wetland resources and priorities for wetland inventory. Edited by Finlayson, C.M. and Spiers, A.G. Wetlands International Publication 53, Supervising Scientist. Canberra, Australia. Chapter 144. pp. 457-492.

4.    Ramsar Sites Information Service. 2008. Wetlands International [online]. http://www.wetlands.org/rsis/ (accessed 27 October, 2009).

5.    Zedler, J.B. and Kercher, S. 2005. Wetland resources: status, trends, ecosystem services and restorability. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30:39-74.

6.    Fournier, R.A., Grenier, M., Lavoie, A. and Hélie, R. 2007. Towards a strategy to implement the Canadian Wetland Inventory using satellite remote sensing. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 33:S1-S16.

7.    Rubec, C. 1994. Wetland policy implementation in Canada. Proceedings of National Workshop, June 1994. Report Series No. 94-1. North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Canada). Ottawa, ON. 127 p.

8.    Environment Canada. 1991. The federal policy on wetland conservation. Minister of Supply and Services. Ottawa, ON. 14 p.

9.    Moore, K., Ward, p. and Roger, K. 2004. Urban and agricultural encroachment onto Fraser lowland wetlands – 1989 to 1999. Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference. Edited by Droscher, T.W. and Fraser, D.A. Vancouver, BC.

10.    Manitoba Conservation Data Centre and Manitoba Remote Sensing Centre. 2002. Land use/land cover Landsat TM Maps – Provisional Data (Arc/INFO). Manitoba Remote Sensing Centre. Winnipeg, MB.

11.    Ducks Unlimited Canada. 2010. Southern Ontario wetland conversion analysis: final report. Ducks Unlimited. Barrie, ON. 23 p.

12.    Watmough, M.D. and Schmoll, M.J. 2007. Environment Canada's Prairie and Northern Region habitat monitoring program phase II: recent habitat trends in the Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. Technical Report Series No. 493. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Edmonton, AB. 135 p.

13.    Poulin, M., Rochefort, L., Pellerin, S. and Thibault, J. 2004. Threats and protection for peatlands in eastern Canada. Geocarrefour 79:331-344.

14.    Natural Resources Canada. 2009. The atlas of Canada, wetlands [online]. http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/theme_modules/wetlands/index.html (accessed 23 October, 2009).

15.    Mitsch, W.J. and Gosselink, J.G. 2007. Wetlands. Edition 4. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New Jersey, NY.

16.    Lehner, B. and Doll, P. 2004. Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296:1-22.

17.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water – synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 80 p.

18.    Dugan, P.J. 1990. Wetlands conservation: a review of current issues and required action. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 94 p.

19.    Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. 2008. Prairie Habitat Joint Venture implementation plan: 2007-2012. Environment Canada. Edmonton, AB. 34 p. (Revised May 2009).

20.    Batt, B.D.J., Anderson, M.G., Anderson, C.D. and Caswell, F.D. 1989. The use of prairie potholes by North American ducks. In Northern prairie wetlands. Edited by Vander, V. Iowa State University Press. Ames, IA. pp. 204-227.

21.    Conly, F.M. and Van der Kamp, G. 2001. Monitoring the hydrology of Canadian prairie wetlands to detect the effects of climate change and land use changes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 67:195-215.

22.    Johnson, W.C., Millett, B.V., Gilmanov, T., Voldseth, R.A., Guntenspergen, G.R. and Naugle, D.E. 2010. Vulnerability of northern prairie wetlands to climate change. Bioscience 55:863-872.

23.    Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2010. Birds in forested landscapes [online]. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. http://www.birds.cornell.edu/bfl/gen_instructions/fragmentation.html (accessed 8 May, 2010).

24.    Lynch-Stewart, p. 1983. Land use change on wetlands in southern Canada: review and bibliography. Working Paper No. 29. Lands Directorate, Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 115 p.

25.    Dahl, T.E. and Watmough, M.D. 2007. Current approaches to wetland status and trends monitoring in prairie Canada and the continental United States of America. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 33:S17-S27.

26.    Mosquin, T., Whiting, p.G. and McAllister, D.E. 1995. Canada's biodiversity: the variety of life, its status, economic benefits, conservation costs and unmet needs. Canadian Museum of Nature. Ottawa, ON.

27.    Millar, J.B. 1989. Perspectives on the status of Canadian prairie wetlands. Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife 61:829-852.

28.    Bartzen, B.A., Dufour, K.W., Clark, R.G. and Caswell, F.D. 2010. Trends in agricultural impact and recovery of wetlands in prairie Canada. Ecological Applications
20:525-538.

29.    Reynolds, R.E., Cohan, D.R. and Johnson, M.A. 1996. Using landscape information approaches to increase duck recruitment in the prairie pothole region. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 52:86-93.

30.    Snell, E. 1987. Wetland distribution and conservation in southern Ontario. Working Paper No. 48. Inland Waters and Land Directorate, Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

31.    Krieger, K.A., Klarer, D.M., Heath, R.T. and Herdendorf, C.E. 1992. Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes: current knowledge and research needs. Journal of Great Lakes Research 18:525-528.

32.    Bedford, K.W. 1992. The physical effects of the Great Lakes on tributaries and wetlands. Journal of Great Lakes Research 18:571-589.

33.    Wilcox, D.A. 1995. The role of wetlands in nearshore habitats in Lake Huron. In The Lake Huron ecosystem: ecology, fisheries, and management. Edited by Munawar, M., Edsall, T. and Leach, J. SPB Academic Publishing. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 223-245.

34.    McCullough, G.B. 1985. Wetland threats and losses in Lake St. Clair. In Coastal Wetlands. Edited by Prince, H.P. and d'Itri, F.M. Lewis Publishers. Chelsea, MI.
pp. 201-208.

35.    Whilans, T.J. 1982. Changes in marsh area along the Canadian shore of Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 8:570-577.

36.    Ball, H., Jalava, J., King, T., Maynard, L., Potter, B. and Pulfer, T. 2003. The Ontario Great Lakes coastal wetland atlas: a summary of information (1983-1997). Environment Canada and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. ON. 49 p.

37.    Timmermann, S.T., Badzinski, S.S. and Ingram, J.W. 2008. Association between breeding marsh bird abundances and Great Lakes hydrology. Journal of Great Lakes Research 34:351-364.

38.    Ontario Biodiversity Council. 2010. State of Ontario's biodiversity 2010. A report of the Ontario Biodiversity Council. Peterborough, ON. 121 p.

39.    Meadows, G.A., Goforth, R.R., Mickelson, D.M., Edil, T.B., Fuller, J., Guy, D.E., Meadows, L.A., Brown, E., Carman, S.M. and Liebenthal, D.L. 2005. Cumulative habitat impacts of nearshore engineering. Journal of Great Lakes Research 31:90-112.

40.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. 432 p.

41.    Burton, T.M. 1985. Effects of water level fluctuations on Great Lakes coastal marshes. In Coastal wetlands. Edited by Prince, H.P. and d'Itri, F.M. Lewis Publishers. Chelsea, MI. pp. 3-13.

42.    Shabica, C. and Pranschke, F. 1994. Survey of littoral drift sand deposits along the Illinois and Indiana shores of Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 20:61-72.

43.    Mackey, S.D. and Goforth, R.R. 2005. Special issue on Great Lakes nearshore and coastal habitats. Journal of Great Lakes Research 31:1-5.

44.    Minns, C.K. and Wichert, G.A. 2005. A framework for defining fish habitat domains in Lake Ontario and its drainage. Journal of Great Lakes Research 31:6-27.

45.    Chow-Fraser, P. 2006. Development of the Wetland Water Quality Index (WQI) to assess effects of basin-wide land-use alteration on coastal marshes of the Laurentian Great Lakes. In Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes: health, habitat and indicators. Edited by Simon, T.P. and Stewart, P.M. Indiana Biological Survey. Bloomington, IN. Chapter 5. pp. 137-166.

46.    Chow-Fraser, P. 2008. Wetlands status and trends – for coastal wetlands. Wetland Inventory for Research and Education Network (WIRENet), McMaster University. http://wirenet.mcmaster.ca/publications/papyrus/Coastal_Wetland_ESTR.pdf (accessed 25 August, 2010).

47.    Seilheimer, T.S. and Chow-Fraser, P. 2007. Application of the Wetland Fish Index to northern Great Lakes marshes with emphasis on Georgian Bay coastal wetlands. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33:154-171.

48.    Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ontario Region. 2010. Great Lakes Water Quality Index scores, 2009. Unpublished data.

49.    Lehoux, D. and Chamard, L. 2002. Biodiversity portrait of the St. Lawrence, anthropogenic modification to the St. Lawrence: loss of wetlands [online]. Environment Canada. http://www.qc.ec.gc.ca/faune/biodiv/en/anthropo/wetlands.html (accessed 20 July, 2010).

50.    Jean, M. and Létourneau, G. 2007. Monitoring wetland area along the St. Lawrence River (Canada): from state to functions and values. International Society of Wetland Scientists, 2007 Annual Meeting, June 10-15, 2007. Sacramento, CA.

51.    Jean, M. and Létourneau, G. 2010. Changes to the wetlands of the St. Lawrence River, 1970-2002. Scientific and Technical Report Series. Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Quebec Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Section. 323 p. In Press.

52.    Kessel-Taylor, I. 1984. The application of the Canada Land Data System for quantitative analysis of land use dynamics on wetlands for twenty-three urban centered regions in Canada. Canada Land Data Systems Report No. R003200. Environment Canada, Lands Directorate. Ottawa, ON. 143 p.

53.    Hudon, C., Gagnon, P., Amyot, J.P., Létourneau, G., Jean, M., Plante, C., Rioux, D. and Deschênes, M. 2005. Historical changes in herbaceous wetland distribution induced by hydrological conditions in Lake Saint-Pierre (St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada). Hydrobiologia 539:205-224.

54.    Lavoie, C., Jean, M., Delisle, F. and Létourneau, G. 2003. Exotic plant species of St. Lawrence River wetlands: a spatial and historical analysis. Journal of Biogeography 30:537-549.

55.    Hudon, C. 2004. Shift in wetland composition and biomass following low-level episodes in the St. Lawrence River: looking into the future. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:603-617. doi:10.1139/F04-031.

56.    Labrecque, S., Lacelle.D., Duguay, C.R., Lauriol, B. and Hawkings, J. 2009. Contemporary (1951-2001) evolution of lakes in the Old Crow Basin, northern Yukon, Canada: remote sensing, numerical modeling and stable isotope analysis. Arctic 62:225-238.

57.    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Waterfowl breeding population and habitat survey [online]. Division of Migratory Birds Management, U.S. Department of the Interior. http://migbirdapps.fws.gov/ (accessed 20 July, 2010).

58.    Gray, D.R. and Alt, B.T. 2000. Resource description and analysis for Vuntut National Park of Canada. Parks Canada. Western Canada Service Centre. Haines Junction, YT.

59.    Peters, D.L., Prowse, T.D., Marsh, P.M., LaFleur, P.M. and Buttle, J.M. 2006. Persistence of water within perched basins of the Peace-Athabasca delta, northern Canada. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14:1-23.

60.    Timoney, K. 2002. A dying delta? A case study of a wetland paradigm. Wetlands. 22:282-300.

61.    Beltaos, S. 2003. Numerical modelling of ice-jam flooding on the Peace-Athabasca delta. Hydrological Processes 17:3685-3702.

62.    Peters, D.L., Prowse, T., Pietroniro, A. and Leconte, R. 2006. Flood hydrology of the Peace-Athabasca delta, northern Canada. Hydrological Processes 20:4073-4096.

63.    Timoney, K.P. 2006. Landscape cover change in the Peace-Athabasca delta, 1927-2001. Wetlands 26:765-778.

64.    Hugenholtz, C.H., Smith, D.G. and Livingston, J.M. 2009. Application of floodplain stratigraphy to determine the recurrence of ice-jam flooding along the lower Peace and Athabasca rivers, Alberta. Canadian Water Resources Journal 34:79-94. doi:10.4296/cwrj3401079.

65.    Wolfe, B.B., Hall, R.I., Last, W.M., Edwards, T.W.D., English, M.C., Karst-Riddoch, T.L., Paterson, A. and Palmini, R. 2006. Reconstruction of multi-century flood histories from oxbow lake sediments, Peace-Athabasca delta, Canada. Hydrological Processes 20:4131-4153.

66.    Timoney, K.P. 2009. Three centuries of change in the Peace-Athabasca delta, Canada. Climatic Change 93:485-515. :doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9536-4.

67.    Timoney, K. 22 July, 2010. Personal communication.

68.    Prowse, T.D., Beltaos, S., Gardner, J.T., Gibson, J.J., Granger, R.J., Leconte, R., Peters, D.L., Pietroniro, A., Romolo, L.A. and Toth, B. 2006. Climate change, flow regulation and land-use effects on the hydrology of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave system; findings from the Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 113:167-197.

69.    Prowse, T.D. and Conly, F.M. 2002. A review of hydroecological results of the Northern River Basins Study, Canada. Part 2. Peace-Athabasca delta. River Research and Applications 18:447-460.

70.    Prowse, T.D., Conly, F.M., Church, M. and English, M.C. 2002. A review of hydroecological results of the Northern River Basins Study, Canada. Part 1. Peace and Slave rivers. River Research and Applications 18:429-446.

71.    Kelly, E.N., Short, J.W., Schindler, D.W., Hodson, P.V., Ma, M.S., Kwan, A.K. and Fortin, B.L. 2009. Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:22346-22351.

72.    Kelly, E.N., Schindler, D.W., Hodson, P.V., Short, J.W., Radmanovich, R. and Nielsen, C.C. 2010. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:16178-16183. doi:10.1073/pnas.1008754107.

73.    Beltaos, S., Prowse, T.D., Bonsal, B.R., Mackay, R., Romolo, L., Pietroniro, A. and Toth, B. 2006. Climatic effects on ice-jam flooding of the Peace-Athabasca delta. Hydrological Processes 20:4031-4050.

74.    Tarnocai, C. 2006. The effect of climate change on carbon in Canadian peatlands. Global and Planetary Change 53:222-232. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.03.012.

75.    Natural Resources Canada. 2009. Biodiversity [online]. Natural Resources Canada. http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/article/biodiversity (accessed 10 February, 2010).

76.    Zoltai, S.C. and Tarnocai, C. 1975. Perennially frozen peatlands in the Western Arctic and subarctic of Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 12:28-43.

77.    Warner, B.G. and Asada, T. 2006. Biological diversity of peatlands in Canada. Aquatic Sciences 68:240-253.

78.    Tarnocai, C. 2006. The effect of climate change on carbon in Canadian peatlands. Global and Planetary Change 53:222-232. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.03.012.

79.    Carlson, M., Chen, J., Elgie, S., Henschel, C., Montenegro, A., Roulet, N., Scott, N., Tarnocai, C. and Wells, J. 2010. Maintaining the role of Canada's forests and peatlands in climate regulation. The Forestry Chronicle 86:434-443.

80.    Urquizo, N., Bastedo, J., Brydges, T. and Shear, H. 2000. Ecological assessment of the Boreal Shield Ecozone. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. Ottawa, ON.

81.    Environment Canada. 2009. National inventory report: greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada, 1990-2007. Government of Canada. Ottawa, ON. 620 p.

82.    Lee, P. and Cheng, R. 2009. Bitumen and biocarbon: land use conversions and loss of biological carbon due to bitumen operations in the boreal forests of Alberta, Canada. Global Forest Watch Canada. Edmonton, AB. 40 p.

83.    Parent, L.-É. 2001. L'utilisation agricole. In Écologie des tourbières du Québec-Labrador. Edited by Payette, S. and Rochefort, L. Les Presses de l'Université Laval. Saint-Nicolas, QC. pp. 411-421.

84.    Tarnocai, C., Kettles, I.M. and Lacelle, B. 2002. Peatlands of Canada database. Geological Survey of Canada.

85.    Smith, L.C., Sheng, Y. and MacDonald, G.M. 2007. A first pan-Arctic assessment of the influence of glaciation, permafrost, topography and peatlands on northern hemisphere lake distribution. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 18:201-208.

86.    Turetsky, M.R., Wieder, R.K., Vitt, D.H., Evans, R.J. and Scott, K.D. 2007. The disappearance of relict permafrost in boreal North America: effects on peatland carbon storage and fluxes. Global Change Biology 13:1-13.

87.    Lea, T. 2008. Historical (pre-settlement) ecosystems of the Okanagan Valley and lower Similkameen Valley of British Columbia – pre-European contact to the present. Davidsonia 19:3-36.

88.    British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 2000. The ecology of wetland ecosystems. Extension Note No. 45. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Smithers, BC.

89.    Brinson, M.M. 2008. Temperate freshwater wetlands: response to gradients in moisture regime, human alterations and economic status. In Aquatic ecosystems: trends and global prospects. Edited by Polunin, N.V.C. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY. pp. 127-140.

90.    British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 1998. Habitat atlas for wildlife at risk: South Okanagan and Lower Similkameen. Government of British Columbia. Victoria, BC. 124 p.

91.    British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management and Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2004. Wetlands of the southern interior valleys. Ecosystems in British Columbia at risk. Government of British Columbia. Victoria, BC. 6 p.

92.    Sarell, M. 1990. Survey of relatively natural wetlands in the South Okanagan. Habitat Conservation Trust Fund. Victoria, BC. 7 p.

4. Lakes and rivers

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2010. Lake [online]. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0004471 (accessed 15 February, 2010).

2.    Monk, W.A., Baird, D.J., Curry, R.A., Glozier, N. and Peters, D.L. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 20. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

3.    Ricciardi, A. and Rasmussen, J.B. 1999. Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 13:1220-1222.

4.    Schindler, D.W. and Donahue, W.F. 2006. An impending water crisis in Canada's western Prairie Provinces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:7210-7216.

5.    Schindler, D.W. 1997. Widespread effects of climate warming on freshwater ecosystems in North America. Hydrological Processes 11:1043-1067.

6.    Van der Kamp, G., Keir, D. and Evans, M.S. 2008. Long-term water level changes in closed-basin lakes of the Canadian prairies. Canadian Water Resources Journal 33:23-38.

7.    Last, W.M. and Ginn, F.M. 2005. Saline systems of the Great Plains of Western Canada: an overview of the limnogeology and paleolimnology. Saline Systems 1:10.

8.    Zhang, X., Brown, R., Vincent, L., Skinner, W., Feng, Y. and Mekis, E. 2010. Canadian climate trends 1950-2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 5. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

9.    Zhang, X.B., Harvey, K.D., Hogg, W.D. and Yuzyk, T.R. 2001. Trends in Canadian streamflow. Water Resources Research 37:987-998.

10.    Javorek, S.K. and Grant, M.C. 2010. Trends in wildlife habitat capacity on agricultural land in Canada, 1986-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 14. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

11.    Déry, S.J. and Wood, E.F. 2005. Decreasing river discharge in northern Canada. Geophysical Research Letters 32:1-4. doi:10.1029/2005GL022845, 2005.

12.    McClelland, J.W., Dery, S.J., Peterson, B.J., Holmes, R.M. and Wood, E.F. 2006. A Pan-Arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter half of the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters 33:1-4.

13.    Peterson, B.J., Holmes, R.M., McClelland, J.W., Volosmarty, C.J. and Lammers, R.B. 2002. Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science 298:2171-2173.

14.    Peterson, B.J., McClelland, J., Curry, R., Holmes, R.M., Walsh, J.E. and Aargaard, K. 2006. Trajectory shifts in the Arctic and Subarctic freshwater cycle. Science 313:1061-1066.

15.    Postel, S.L. 1992. Last oasis: facing water scarcity. Worldwatch Institute. New York, NY. 240 p.

16.    World Resources Institute, United Nations Environmental Programme and World Business Council for Sustainable Development. 2002. Tomorrow's markets: global trends and their implications for business. Paris, France. 61 p.

17.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. 432 p.

18.    Heaton, D. 2003. Effects of water level fluctuations. In State of the Great Lakes 2003. Edited by Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Governments of Canada and the United States. pp. 86-87.

19.    Wilcox, D.A., Thompson, T.A., Booth, R.K. and Nicholas, J.R. 2007. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes. U.S. Geological Survey Circular No. 1311. 25 p.

20.    Commision for Environmental Cooperation. 2008. The North American mosaic: an overview of key environmental issues. Commision for Environmental Cooperation. Montreal, QC. 62 p.

5. Coastal

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Natural Resources Canada. 2010. Coastline and shoreline (the atlas of Canada) [online]. http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/facts/coastline.html (accessed 23 May, 2010).

2.    Centre for Marine Biodiversity. 2010. Marine biodiversity in Canada [online]. http://www.marinebiodiversity.ca/cmb/education/what-is-marine-biodiversity/marine-biodiversity-in-canada (accessed 23 May, 2010).

3.    CBCL Limited. 2009. The 2009 state of Nova Scotia's coast technical report. Nova Scotia Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture and Nova Scotia Provincial Oceans Network. 245 p.

4.    McCulloch, M.M., Forbes, D.L., Shaw, R.W. and CAFF-A041 Scientific Team. 2002. Coastal impact of climate change and sea-level rise on Prince Edward Island. Synthesis Report (File 4261). Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada and Geological Survey of Canada. 62 p.

5.    B.C. Ministry of Environment. 2006. Alive and inseparable: British Columbia's coastal environment: 2006. State of Environment Reporting Office. Victoria, BC. 322 p.

6.    Catto, N.R. 2002. Anthropogenic pressures on coastal dunes, southwest Newfoundland. The Canadian Geographer 46:17-32.

7.    Ingram, D. 2005. An investigation of the role of tidal variation on storm surge elevation and frequency in Port-aux-Basques, Newfoundland. Department of Environmental Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland. St. John's, NL. Unpublished research report.

8.    Catto, N.R. 1994. Anthropogenic pressures and the dunal coasts of Newfoundland. Coastal Zone Canada 1994 Conference: Co-operation in the Coastal Zone, proceedings. Edited by Wells, P.G. and Ricketts, P.J. Bedford Institute of Oceanography. Vol. 5, pp. 2266-2286.

9.    Vasseur, L. and Catto, N. 2008. Atlantic Canada. In From impacts to adaptation: Canada in a changing climate 2007. Edited by Lemmen, D.S., Warren, F.J., Lacroix, J. and Bush, E. Government of Canada. Ottawa, ON. pp. 119-170.

10.    Bernatchez, P. and Dubois, J.-M.M. 2004. Bilan des connaissances de la dynamique de l'érosion des côtes du Québec maritime laurentien. Géographie physique et Quaternaire 58:45-71.

11.    Lantuit, H. and Pollard, W.H. 2008. Fifty years of coastal erosion and retrogressive thaw slump activity on Herschel Island, southern Beaufort Sea, Yukon Territory, Canada. Geomorphology 95:84-102.

12.    Mars, J.C. and Houseknecht, D.W. 2007. Quantitative remote sensing study indicates doubling of coastal erosion rate in past 50 yr along a segment of the Arctic coast of Alaska. Geology 35:583-586.

13.    Burke, L., Kura, Y., Kassem, K., Revenga, C., Spalding, M. and McAllister, D. 2001. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: coastal ecosystems. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 93 p.

14.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water – synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 80 p.

15.    Wiken, E., Smith, W.G.B., Cinq-Mars, J., Latsch, C. and Gauthier, D. 2003. Habitat integrity in Canada: wildlife conservation in Canada. Background paper for the national conference on guidelines and tools for the evaluation of Natura 200 sites in France, Montpellier, March 3-5, 2003. Wildlife Habitat Canada. 30 p.

16.    Lynch-Stewart, P. 1983. Land use change on wetlands in southern Canada: review and bibliography. Working Paper No. 29. Lands Directorate, Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 115 p.

17.    O'Carroll, S., Berube, D., Hanson, A., Forbes, D., Ollerhead, J. and Olsen, L. 2006. Temporal changes in beach and dune habitat in southeastern New Brunswick, 1944-2001. In Impacts of sea-level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Edited by Daigle, R.J. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. Chapter 4.6.4. pp. 421-426.

18.    Hanson, A., Berube, D., Forbes, D., O'Carroll, S., Ollerhead, J. and Olsen, L. 2006. Impacts of sea-level rise and residential development on salt-marsh area in southeastern New Brunswick, 1944-2001. In Impacts of sea-level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Edited by Daigle, R.J. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. Chapter 4.6.3. pp. 408-421.

19.    Canadian Wildlife Service and Canadian Wildlife Federation. Hinterland who's who: bird fact sheets: piping plover [online]. http://www.hww.ca/hww2.asp?id=61 (accessed 6 July, 2010).

20.    Amirault, D.L. 2005. The 2001 international piping plover census in Canada. Technical Report Series No. 436. Canadian Wildlife Service (Atlantic Region), Environment Canada. 126 p.

21.    Canadian Wildlife Service. 2006. Number of adult piping plovers in Atlantic Maritime Ecozone. Canadian Wildlife Service (Atlantic Region), Environment Canada. Unpublished data.

22.    Catto, N.R., Scruton, D.A. and Ollerheard, L.M.N. 2003. The coastline of eastern Newfoundland. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Science No. 2495. DFO. St. John's, NL. 241 p.

23.    Anders, F.J. and Leatherman, S.P. 1987. Effects of off-road vehicles on coastal fore-dunes at Fire Island, New York. Environmental Management 11:45-52.

24.    Forbes, D.L., Parkes, G.S. and Ketch, L.A. 2006. Sea-level rise and regional subsidence. In Impacts of sea level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Edited by Daigle, R.J. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. Chapter 4.1. pp. 34-94.

25.    Daigle, R.J. (ed.). 2006. Impacts of sea-level rise and climate change on the coastal zone of southeastern New Brunswick. Environment Canada. Dartmouth, NS. 611 p.

26.    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment. Synthesis Report. Edited by Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. IPCC Secretariat. Geneva, Switzerland. 104 p.

27.    Shaw, J., Taylor, R.B., Forbes, D.L., Ruz, M.H. and Solomon, S. 1998. Sensitivity of the coasts of Canada to sea-level rise. Bulletin No. 505. Geological Survey of Canada. 79 p.

28.    Elsner, J.B., Kossin, J.P. and Jagger, T.H. 2008. The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 455:92-95.

29.    Saunders, M.A. and Lea, A.S. 2008. Large contribution of sea surface warming to recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity. Nature 451:557-561.

30.    Environment Canada. 2002. Atlantic hurricanes breaking records. Science and the Environment Bulletin 31:4-5.

31.    Forbes, D.L., Parkes, G.S., Manson, G.K. and Ketch, L.A. 2004. Storms and shoreline retreat in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine Geology 210:169-204.

32.    Jefferies, R.L., Jano, A.P. and Abraham, K.F. 2006. A biotic agent promotes large-scale catastrophic change in the coastal marshes of Hudson Bay. Journal of Ecology 94:234-242.

33.    Abraham, K.F. and Jefferies, R.L. 1997. Part II: high goose populations: causes, impacts and implications. In Arctic ecosystems in peril: report of the Arctic Goose Habitat Working Group. Edited by Batt, B.D.J. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Canadian Wildlife Service. Washington DC and Ottawa, ON. pp. 7-72.

34.    Jefferies, R.L., Rockwell, R.F. and Abraham, K.F. 2003. The embarrassment of riches: agricultural food subsidies, high goose numbers and loss of Arctic wetlands – a continuing saga. Environmental Reviews 11:193-232.

35.    Jefferies, R.L. and Rockwell, R.F. 2002. Foraging geese, vegetation loss and soil degradation in an Arctic salt marsh. Applied Vegetation Science 5:7-16.

36.    Bertness, M.D., Silliman, B.R. and Jefferies, R.L. 2004. Salt marshes under siege. American Scientist 92:54-61.

37.    Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee. 2009. Population status of migratory game birds in Canada (and regulation proposals for overabundant species). CWS Migratory Birds Regulatory Report No. 28. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 95 p.

38.    Moore, K., Ward, P. and Roger, K. 2004. Urban and agricultural encroachment onto Fraser lowland wetlands – 1989 to 1999. Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference. Edited by Droscher, T.W. and Fraser, D.A. Vancouver, BC.

39.    Prentice, A.C. and Boyd, S.W. 1988. Intertidal and adjacent upland habitat in estuaries located on the east coast of Vancouver Island – a pilot assessment of their historical changes. Technical Report Series No. 38. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Delta, BC. 75 p.

40.    BC Ministry of Environment. 2006. Population and economic activity: introduction. In Alive and inseparable: British Columbia's coastal environment 2006. State of Environment Reporting Office. Victoria, BC. Chapter 1. pp. 2-5.

41.    Austin, M., Buffett, D., Nicolson, D., Stevens, V. and Scudder, G.G.E. 2008. Taking nature's pulse: the status of biodiversity in British Columbia. Biodiversity B.C. Victoria, BC. 268 p.

42.    Pomeroy, A.C., Butler, R.W. and Ydenberg, R.C. 2006. Experimental evidence that migrants adjust usage at a stopover site to trade off food and danger. Behavioral Ecology 17:1041-1045.

43.    Butler, R. and Campbell, R.W. 1987. The Birds of the Fraser River delta: populations, ecology and international significance. Occasional Paper No. 65. Government of Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Ottawa, ON. 72 p.

44.    DFO. 2009. Does eelgrass (Zostera marina) meet the criteria as an ecologically significant species? Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2009/018. 11 p.

45.    Waycott, M., Duarte, C.M., Carruthers, T.J.B., Orth, R.J., Dennison, W.C., Olyarnik, S., Calladine, A., Fourqurean, J.W., Heck, K.L., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Short, F.T. and Williams, S.L. 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:12377-12381.

46.    Cottam, C. and Addy, C.E. 1947. Present eelgrass condition and problems on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Transactions of 12th North American Wildlife Conference. Vol. 12, pp. 387-398.

47.    Martin, A.C. 1954. A clue to the eelgrass mystery. Transactions of 19th North American Wildlife Conference. Vol. 19, pp. 441-449.

48.    Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans. 2008. Fifth report of the Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans to the House of Commons. Government of Canada. Ottawa, ON.

49.    Hanson, A.R. 2004. Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in eastern Canada. Technical Report Series No. 412. Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. 40 p.

50.    Short, F.T. 2008. Report to the Cree Nation of Chisasibi on the status of eelgrass in James Bay. Jackson Estuarine Laboratory. Durham, NH. 30 p.

51.    Kelly, J.R. and Volpe, J.R. 2007. Native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) survival and growth adjacent to non-native oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Botanica Marina 50:143-150.

52.    Kelly, J.R., Proctor, H. and Volpe, J.P. 2008. Intertidal community structure differs significantly between substrates dominated by native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and adjacent to the introduced oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) in British Columbia, Canada. Hydrobiologia 596:57-66.

53.    Williams, S.L. 2007. Introduced species in seagrass ecosystems: status and concerns. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 350:89-110.

54.    Baldwin, J.R. and Lovvorn, J.R. 1994. Expansion of seagrass habitat by the exotic Zostera japonica, and its use by dabbling ducks and brant in Boundary Bay, British Columbia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 103:119-127.

55.    Kuwae, T., Beninger, P.G., Decottignies, P., Mathot, K.J., Lund, D.R. and Elner, R.W. 2008. Biofilm grazing in a higher vertebrate: the western sandpiper, Calidris mauri. Ecology 89:599-606.

56.    Lalumière, R., Messier, D., Fournier, J.J. and Mcroy, C.P. 1994. Eelgrass meadows in a low Arctic environment, the northeast coast of James Bay, Quebec. Aquatic Botany 47:303-315.

57.    Hydro-Québec and GENIVAR Groupe Conseil inc. 2005. Eelgrass meadows of the northeast coast of James Bay. In Environmental monitoring at the La Grande complex: abridged summary report 1988-2000. Joint report by Hydro-Québec and GENIVAR Groupe Conseil inc. pp. 1-42.

58.    Sharp, G. and Semple, R. 2004. Status of eelgrass beds in south-western Nova Scotia. In Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Eastern Canada. Edited by Hanson, A.R. Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. p. 8.

59.    Chapman, A. and Smith, J. 2004. Quantifying the rapid decline of eelgrass beds on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia between 1992 and 2002. In Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Eastern Canada. Edited by Hanson, A.R. Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. p. 9.

60.    Locke, A. and Hanson, J.M. 2004. Changes in eelgrass in southern Gulf of St. Lawrence estuaries. In Status and conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Eastern Canada. Edited by Hanson, A.R. Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region. pp. 10-12.

61.    Seymour, N.R., Miller, A.G. and Garbary, D.J. 2002. Decline of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) associated with a collapse of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a Nova Scotia estuary. Helgoland Marine Research 56:198-202.

62.    Martel, M.-C., Provencher, L., Grant, C., Ellefsen, H.-F. and Pereira, S. 2009. Distribution et description des herbiers de zostère du Québec. Document de recherche No. 2009/050. Secrétariat canadien de consultation sciéntifique. Ottawa, ON. 37 p.

6. Marine

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Office of Marine Programs. 2010. Census of marine life [online]. University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography. http://www.coml.org/ (accessed 5 May, 2010).

2.    Hays, G.C., Richardson, A.J. and Robinson, C. 2005. Climate change and marine plankton. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:337-344. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.03.004.

3.    Worm, B., Barbier, E.B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J.E., Folke, C., Halpern, B.S., Jackson, J.B.C., Lotze, H.K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S.R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K.A., Stachowicz, J.J. and Watson, R. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787-790.

4.    McAllister, D.E. 2000. Biodiversity in Canadian fresh and marine waters. In Biodiversity in Canada: ecology, ideas, and action. Edited by Bocking, S. University of Toronto Press. pp. 81-105.

5.    DFO. 2010. 2010 Canadian marine ecosystem status and trends report. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2010/030. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 37 p.

6.    Crawford, W.R. and Irvine, J.R. 2009. State of physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2009/022. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. vi + 121 p.

7.    DFO. 2007. 2006 State of the ocean: physical oceanographic conditions in the Newfoundland and Labrador region. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2007/025. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 11 p.

8.    Caldeira, K. and Wickett, M.E. 2003. Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425:365-365.

9.    Blackford, J., Turley, C., Widdicombe, S., Orr, J. and Gattuso, J.-P. 2007. Ocean acidification – the other half of the CO2 problem. Fact Sheet No. 7. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Marine Environment Laboratories (IAEA), Observatoire Océanologique (CNRS). Plymouth, United Kingdom.

10.    James, C.O., Jutterström, S., Bopp, L., Anderson, L.G., Cadule, P., Fabry, V.J., Frölicher, T., Jones, E.P., Joos, F., Lenton, A., Maier-Reimer, E., Segschneider, J., Steinacher, M. and Swingedouw, D. 2009. Amplified acidification of the Arctic Ocean. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. Vol. 6.

11.    Stramma, L., Schmidtko, S., Levin, L.A. and Johnson, G.C. 2010. Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 57:587-595. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.01.005.

12.    Whitney, F. 2009. Spreading hypoxia in deep waters along the west coast. In State of physical, biological, and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems. Edited by Crawford, W.R. and Irvine, J.R. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. pp. 55-56. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2009/022. vi + 121 p.

13.    Purcell, J.E., Uye, S. and Lo, W.T. 2007. Anthropogenic causes of jellyfish blooms and their direct consequences for humans: a review. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 350:153-174.

14.    Dufour, R., Benoit, H., Castonguay, M., Chasse, J., Devine, L., Galbraith, P., Harvey, M., Larouche, P., Lessard, S., Petrie, B., Savard, L., Savenkoff, C., St-Amand, L. and Starr, M. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence Ecozone+. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2010/030. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. v + 187 p.

15.    Johannessen, S.C. and McCarter, B. 2010. Ecosystems status and trends report for the Strait of Georgia Ecozone+. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2010/010. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. vi + 45 p.

16.    Worcester, T. and Parker, M. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report for the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2010/070. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. vi + 59 p.

17.    Johns, D.G. 2010. Monthly means for total dinoflagellates, total euphausiids, total Calanus, phytoplankton colour index and total copepods, (40N to 60N, 46W to 66W), 1959-2008, as recorded by the Continuous Plankton Recorder. Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science. Plymouth, UK.

18.    Harrison, G., Sameoto, D., Spry, J., Pauley, K., Maass, H., Kennedy, M., Porter, C. and Soukhovtsev, V. 2007. Optical, chemical and biological oceanographic conditions in the Maritimes region in 2006. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2007/050. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 48 p.

19.    Gaston, A.J., Bertram, D.F., Boyne, A.W., Chardine, J.W., Davoren, G., Diamond, A.W., Hedd, A., Montevecchi, W.A., Hipfner, J.M., Lemon, M.J.F., Mallory, M.L., Rail, J.-F. and Robertson, G.J. 2009. Changes in Canadian seabird populations and ecology since 1970 in relation to changes in oceanography and food webs. Environmental Reviews 17:267-286.

20.    Niemi, A., Paulic, J. and Cobb, D. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: Arctic marine ecozones+. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2010/066. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. viii + 66 p.

21.    Benoit, D., Simard, Y. and Fortier, L. 2008. Hydroacoustic detection of large winter aggregations of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) at depth in ice-covered Franklin Bay (Beaufort Sea). Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 113.

22.    DFO. 2008. Assessment of capelin in SA2 + Div. 3KL in 2008. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2008/054. 13 p.

23.    Zwanenburg, K.C.T., Bundy, A., Strain, P., Bowen, W.D., Breeze, H., Campana, S.E., Hannah, C., Head, E. and Gordon, D. 2006. Implications of ecosystem dynamics for the integrated management of the eastern Scotian Shelf. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 2652. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. xiii + 91 p.

24.    DFO. 2010. Current status of northwest Atlantic Harp seals, Pagophilus groenlandicus. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2009/074. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. iv + 10 p.

25.    Zeh, J.E. and Punt, A.E. 2005. Updated 1978–2001 abundance estimates and their correlations for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas stock of bowhead whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7:169-175.

26.    DFO. 2008. Population assessment: Steller sea lion (Eumetopias Jubatus). DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2008/047. 11 p.

27.    DFO. 2010. Population assessment: Pacific Harbour seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi). DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2009/011. 10 p.

28.    Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M. and Olesiuk, P.F. 2005. Linking prey and population dynamics: did food limitation cause recent declines of "resident" killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia? Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2005/042. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 27 p.

29.    Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond, R.E.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.E., Carr, G.M., Chanson, J.S., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Morcillo, M.H., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quder, S., Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vie, J.-C. and Watson, R. 2010. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164-1168. doi:10.1126/science.1187512.

7. Ice across biomes

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Environment Canada. 2010. The Atlas of Canada: glaciers [online]. National Hydrology Research Institute. http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/facts/glaciers.html (accessed 25 July, 2010).

2.    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by Solomon, S., Qin, S., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. and Miller, H.L. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK and New York, NY.

3.    UNEP. 2007. Global outlook for ice and snow. United Nations Environment Programme. Nairobi, Kenya. 235 p.

4.    Fetterer, F., Knowles, K., Meier, W. and Savoie, M. 2010. Sea ice index [online]. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO. http://nsidc.org/data/g02135.html (accessed 4 October, 2010).

5.    Parkinson, C.L. and Cavalieri, D.J. 2008. Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979-2006. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 113:1-28.

6.    Stroeve, J., Markus, T., Meier, W.N. and Miller, J. 2006. Recent changes in the Arctic melt season. Annals of Glaciology 44:367-374.

7.    Howell, S.E.L., Duguay, C.R. and Markus, T. 2009. Sea ice conditions and melt season duration variability within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979-2008. Geophysical Research Letters 36:1-6.

8.    Rampal, P., Weiss, J. and Marsan, D. 2009. Positive trend in the mean speed and deformation rate of Arctic sea ice, 1979-2007. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 114:1-14.

9.    Jolly, D., Berkes, F., Castledon, J., Nichols, T. and The Community of Sachs Harbour. 2002. We can't predict the weather like we used to: Inuvialuit observations of climate change, Sachs Harbour, Western Canadian Arctic. In The Earth is faster now: Indigenous observations of Arctic climate change. Edited by Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States and Arctic Resource Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution. Fairbanks, AK. pp. 93-125.

10.    Manson, G.K. and Solomon, S.M. 2007. Past and future forcing of Beaufort Sea coastal change. Atmosphere-Ocean 45:107-122.

11.    Tynan, C.T. and DeMaster, D.P. 1997. Observations and predictions of Arctic climatic change: potential effects on marine mammals. Arctic 50:308-322.

12.    Pamperin, N.J., Follmann, E.H. and Person, B.T. 2008. Sea-ice use by arctic foxes in northern Alaska. Polar Biology 31:1421-1426.

13.    Gunn, A. and Russell, D. 2010. Northern caribou population trends in Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 10. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

14.    Gilchrist, H.G. and Mallory, M.L. 2005. Declines in abundance and distribution of the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Arctic Canada. Biological Conservation 121:303-309.

15.    COSEWIC. 2006. COSEWIC Assessment and update status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 42 p.

16.    Gaston, A.J., Woo, K. and Hipfner, J.M. 2003. Trends in forage fish populations in northern Hudson Bay since 1981, as determined from the diet of nestling thick-billed murres Uria lomvia. Arctic 56:227-233.

17.    Gaston, A.J., Gilchrist, H.G. and Hipfner, J.M. 2005. Climate change, ice conditions and reproduction in an Arctic nesting marine bird: Brunnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia L.). Journal of Animal Ecology 74:832-841.

18.    Gaston, A.J., Glichrist, H.G., Mallory, M.L. and Smith, P.A. 2009. Changes in seasonal events, peak food availability and consequent breeding adjustment in a marine bird: a case of progressive mis-matching. The Condor 111:111-119.

19.    Gaston, A.J., Bertram, D.F., Boyne, A.W., Chardine, J.W., Davoren, G., Diamond, A.W., Hedd, A., Montevecchi, W.A., Hipfner, J.M., Lemon, M.J.F., Mallory, M.L., Rail, J.-F. and Robertson, G.J. 2009. Changes in Canadian seabird populations and ecology since 1970 in relation to changes in oceanography and food webs. Environmental Reviews 17:267-286.

20.    The Arctic Council. 2009. Arctic marine shipping assessment: scenarios of the future. Institute of the North, AMSA, Arctic Council and PAME. 189 p.

21.    Obbard, M.E., Cattet, M.R.L., Moody, T., Walton, L.R., Potter, D., Inglis, J. and Chenier, C. 2006. Temporal trends in the body condition of southern Hudson Bay polar bears. Climate Change Research Information Note No. 3. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 8 p.

22.    Thiemann, G.W., Iverson, S.J. and Stirling, I. 2008. Polar bear diets and Arctic marine food webs: insights from fatty acid analysis. Ecological Monographs 78:591-613.

23.    Stirling, I., Lunn, N.J., Iacozza, J., Elliott, C. and Obbard, M. 2004. Polar bear distribution and abundance on southwestern Hudson Bay coast during open water season, in relation to population trends and annual ice patterns. Arctic 57:15-26.

24.    Gagnon, A.S. and Gough, W.A. 2005. Trends in the dates of ice freeze-up and breakup over Hudson Bay, Canada. Arctic 58:370-382.

25.    Obbard, M.E. 2007. Ontario polar bear report for the Federal-Provincial Polar Bear Technical Committee. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Wildlife Research and Development Section. Peterborough, ON. 14 p.

26.    Regehr, E.V., Lunn, N.J., Amstrup, S.C. and Stirling, I. 2007. Effects of earlier sea-ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2673-2683.

27.    Stirling, I., Lunn, N.J. and Iacozza, J. 1999. Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic 52:294-306.

28.    COSEWIC. 2008. COSEWIC Assessment and update on status report on the polar bear Ursus maritimus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 75 p.

29.    UNEP and WGMS. 2008. Global glacier changes: facts and figures. United Nations Environment Programme and World Glacier Monitoring Service. Nairobi and Zurich. 88 p.

30.    Barrand, N.E. and Sharp, M.J. 2010. Sustained rapid shrinkage of Yukon glaciers since the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year. Geophysical Research Letters 37:5.

31.    Haggarty, D. and Tate, D. 2009. Nahanni National Park Reserve of Canada: state of the park report 2009. Parks Canada. 67 p.

32.    Demuth, M.N., Pinard, V., Pietroniro, A., Luckman, B.H., Hopkinson, C., Dornes, P. and Comeau, L. 2008. Recent and past-century variations in the glacier resources of the Canadian Rocky Mountains – Nelson River System. Terra Glacialis Special Issue: mountain glaciers and climate changes of the last century:27-52.

33.    Petts, G.E., Gurnell, A.M. and Milner, A.M. 2006. Eco-hydrology: new opportunities for research on glacier fed rivers. In Peyto Glacier: one century of science. Edited by Demuth, M.N., Munro, D.S. and Young, G.J. pp. 255-275.

34.    Milner, A.M., Brown, L.E. and Hannah, D.M. 2009. Hydroecological response of river systems to shrinking glaciers. Hydrological Processes 23:62-77.

35.    Moore, R.D. and Demuth, M.N. 2001. Mass balance and streamflow variability at Place Glacier, Canada, in relation to recent climate fluctuations. Hydrological Processes 15:3473-3486.

36.    Natural Resources Canada. 2009. North American atlas - glaciers [online]. http://www.geogratis.ca/geogratis/en/option/select.do?id=B2BA9B9F-3890-EB98-4E47-D12D0964B9AB (accessed 4 July, 2010).

37.    Burgess, D.O. and Koerner, R.M. 2009. Glacier mass balance observations for Devon Ice Cap NW Sector, NU, Canada (updated to 2007); spatially referenced data set contribution to the National Glacier-Climate Observing System, State and Evolution of Canada's Glaciers [online]. Geological Survey of Canada. http://pathways.geosemantica.net/WSHome.aspx?ws=NGP_SECG&locale=en-CA (accessed 4 July, 2010).

38.    Demuth, M.N., Sekerka, J. and Bertollo, S. 2009. Glacier mass balance observations for Peyto Glacier, Alberta, Canada (updated to 2007); spatially referenced data set contribution to the National Glacier-Climate Observing System, State and Evolution of Canada's Glaciers [online]. Geological Survey of Canada. http://pathways.geosemantica.net/WSHome.aspx?ws=NGP_SECG&locale=en-CA (accessed 4 July, 2010).

39.    Demuth, M.N., Sekerka, J., Bertollo, S. and Shea, J. 2009. Glacier mass balance observations for Place Glacier, British Columbia, Canada (updated to 2007); spatially referenced data set contribution to the National Glacier-Climate Observing System, State and Evolution of Canada's Glaciers [online]. Geological Survey of Canada. http://pathways.geosemantica.net/WSHome.aspx?ws=NGP_SECG&locale=en-CA (accessed 4 July, 2010).

40.    Demuth, M.N., Sekerka, J., Bertollo, S. and Shea, J. 2009. Glacier mass balance observations for Helm Glacier, British Columbia, Canada (updated to 2007); spatially referenced data set contribution to the National Glacier-Climate Observing System, State and Evolution of Canada's Glaciers [online]. Geological Survey of Canada. http://pathways.geosemantica.net/WSHome.aspx?ws=NGP_SECG&locale=en-CA (accessed 4 July, 2010).

41.    Zhang, X., Brown, R., Vincent, L., Skinner, W., Feng, Y. and Mekis, E. 2010. Canadian climate trends 1950-2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 5. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

42.    Schindler, D.W., Beaty, K.G., Fee, E.J., Cruikshank, D.R., Debruyn, E.R., Findlay, D.L., Linsey, G.A., Shearer, J.A., Stainton, M.P. and Turner, M.A. 1990. Effects of climatic warming on lakes of the central boreal forest. Science 250:967-970.

43.    Duguay, C.R., Prowse, T.D., Bonsal, B.R., Brown, R.D., Lacroix, M.P. and Menard, P. 2006. Recent trends in Canadian lake ice cover. Hydrological Processes 20:781-801.

44.    Monk, W.A., Baird, D.J., Curry, R.A., Glozier, N. and Peters, D.L. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 20. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

45.    ACIA. 2005. Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY. 1042 p.

46.    Ontario Biodiversity Council. 2010. State of Ontario's biodiversity 2010. A report of the Ontario Biodiversity Council. Peterborough, ON. 121 p.

47.    Edsall, T.A. and Charlton, M.N. 1997. Nearshore waters of the Great Lakes. Environment Canada and Environmental Protection Agency. 162 p.

48.    King, J.R., Shuter, B.J. and Zimmerman, A.P. 1999. Empirical links between thermal habitat, fish growth, and climate change. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:656-665.

49.    Latifovic, R. and Pouliot, D. 2007. Analysis of climate change impacts on lake ice phenology in Canada using the historical satellite data record. Remote Sensing of Environment 106:492-507.

50.    Smith, S. 2010. Trends in permafrost conditions and ecology in northern Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 9. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

51.    Smith, S.L., Burgess, M.M., Riseborough, D. and Nixon, F.M. 2005. Recent trends from Canadian permafrost thermal monitoring network sites. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 16:19-30.

52.    Smith, S.L., Romanovsky, V.E., Lewkowicz, A.G., Burn, C.R., Allard, M., Clow, G.D., Yoshikawa, K. and Throop, J. 2010. Thermal state of permafrost in North America: a contribution to the International Polar Year. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes21:117-135. doi:10.1002/ppp.690.

53.    James, M. 2010. Historic change in permafrost distribution in northern British Columbia and southern Yukon, Canada . Thesis (M Sc). Department of Geography, University of Ottawa. Ottawa, ON.

54.    Beilman, D.W., Vitt, D.H. and Halsey, L.A. 2001. Localized permafrost peatlands in Western Canada: definition, distributions, and degradation. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 33:70-77.

55.    Camill, P. 2005. Permafrost thaw accelerates in boreal peatlands during late-20th century climate warming. Climatic Change 68:135-152.

56.    Beaulieu, N. and Allard, M. 2003. The impact of climate change on an emerging coastline affected by discontinuous permafrost: Manitounuk Strait, Northern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 40:1393-1404.

57.    Vallée, S. and Payette, S. 2007. Collapse of permafrost mounds along a subarctic river over the last 100 years (northern Quebec). Geomorphology 90:162-170.

58.    Fortier, R. and Aub-Maurice, B. 2008. Fast permafrost degradation near Umiujaq in Nunavik (Canada) since 1957 assessed from time-lapse aerial and satellite photographs. 9th International Conference on Permafrost. Edited by Kane, D.L. and Hinkel, K.M. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Fairbanks, AK. Vol. 1, pp. 457-462.

59.    Jorgenson, M.T., Racine, C.H., Walters, J.C. and Osterkamp, T.E. 2001. Permafrost degradation and ecological changes associated with a warming climate in central Alaska. Climatic Change 48:551-579.

60.    Jorgenson, M.T. and Osterkamp, T.E. 2005. Response of boreal ecosystems to varying modes of permafrost degradation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:2100-2111.

61.    Payette, S., Delwaide, A., Caccianiga, M. and Beauchemin, M. 2004. Accelerated thawing of subarctic peatland permafrost over the last 50 years. Geophysical Research Letters 31:L18208.

62.    Thibault, S. and Payette, S. 2009. Recent permafrost degradation in bogs of the James Bay area, northern Quebec, Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 20:383-389.

63.    Marsh, P. and Neumann, N.N. 2001. Processes controlling the rapid drainage of two ice-rich permafrost-dammed lakes in NW Canada. Hydrological Processes 15:3433-3446.

64.    Woo, M.K., Young, K.L. and Brown, L. 2006. High Arctic patchy wetlands: hydrologic variability and their sustainability. Physical Geography 27:297-307.

65.    Woo, M.K. and Young, K.L. 2006. High Arctic wetlands: their occurrence, hydrological characteristics and sustainability. Journal of Hydrology 320:432-450.

66.    Lantz, T.C. and Kokelj, S.V. 2008. Increasing rates of retrogressive thaw slump activity in the Mackenzie Delta region, NWT, Canada. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L06502. doi:10.1029/2007GL032433.

67.    Marsh, P., Russell, M., Pohl, S., Haywood, H. and Onclin, C. 2009. Changes in thaw lake drainage in the Western Canadian Arctic from 1950 to 2000. Hydrological Processes 23:145-158.

68.    Kershaw, G.P. 2003. Permafrost landform degradation over more than half a century, Macmillan/Caribou Pass region, NWT/Yukon, Canada. In Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Permafrost. Edited by Phillips, M., Springman, S.M. and Arenson, L.U. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, CH. pp. 543-548.

69.    Heginbottom, J.A., Dubreuil, M.A. and Harker, P.A.C. 1995. Canada – permafrost (map) In National atlas of Canada, 5th edition. Geomatics Canada, National Atlas Information Service, and Geological Survey of Canada. Ottawa.

70.    Halsey, L.A., Vitt, D.H. and Zoltai, S.C. 1995. Disequilibrium response of permafrost in boreal continental western Canada to climate change. Climatic Change 30:57-73.

71.    Kanigan, J.C.N. 2007. Variation of mean annual ground temperature in spruce forests of the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories. Thesis (M. Sc.). Geography Department, Carleton University. 131 p.

72.    Kanigan, J.C.N., Burn, C.R. and Kokelj, S.V. 2008. Permafrost response to climate warming south of treeline, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. 9th International Conference on Permafrost. Edited by Kane, D.L. and Hinkel, K.M. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Fairbanks, AK. Vol. 1, pp. 901-906.

73.    Burgess, M.M. and Smith, S.L. 2000. Shallow ground temperatures. In The Physical environment of the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories: a baseline for the assessment of environmental change. Edited by Dyke, L.D. and Brooks, G.R. Bulletin 547, Geological Survey of Canada. pp. 89-103.

74.    Goodrich, L.E. 1982. The influence of snow cover on the ground thermal regime. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 19:421-432.

75.    Smith, S.L., Burgess, M.M. and Riseborough, D. 2008. Ground temperature and thaw settlement in frozen peatlands along the Norman Wells pipeline corridor, NWT Canada – 22 years of monitoring. 9th International Conference on Permafrost. Edited by Kane, D.L. and Hinkel, K.M. Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Fairbanks, AK. pp. 1665-1670.

76.    Allard, M., Fortier, R., Gagnon, O. and Michaud, Y. 2004. Problématique du développement du village de Salluit, Nunavik, rapport final. Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval. Québec, QC. 121 p.

77.    Ouranos. 2004. Adapting to climate change. Consortium on Regional Climatology and Adaptation to Climate Change. Montreal, QC. 83 p.

78.    Chouinard, C., Fortier, R. and Mareschal, J.C. 2007. Recent climate variations in the subarctic inferred from three borehole temperature profiles in northern Quebec, Canada. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 263:355-369.

HUMAN/ECOSYSTEM INTERACTIONS

8. Protected areas

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2008. Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. Edited by Dudley, N. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland. 86 p.

2.    Canadian Council on Ecological Areas. 2009. Unpublished analysis of data by ecozone+ from: Conservation Areas Reporting and Tracking System (CARTS), v.2009.05 [online]. Canadian Council on Ecological Areas. http://ccea.org (accessed 5 November, 2009).

3.    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Global biodiversity outlook 3. Montreal, QC. 94 p.

4.    Parks Canada. Establishing Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area reserve and Haida Heritage site. Backgrounder [online]. Parks Canada. http://www.pc.gc.ca/apps/cp-nr/release_e.asp?bgid=1352&andor1=bg (accessed 31 August, 2010).

5.    World Wildlife Fund. 2010. Today's Gwaii Haanas announcement sets the stage for new model of oceans stewardship [online]. World Wildlife Fund. http://wwf.ca/newsroom/?7380/Todays-Gwaii-Haanas-Announcement-Sets-the-Stage-for-New-Model-of-Oceans-Stewardship (accessed 31 August, 2010). News release.

6.    DFO. 2008. Marine protected area: the Gully [online]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans/marineareas-zonesmarines/mpa-zpm/atlantic-atlantique/factsheets-feuillets/gully-eng.htm (accessed 31 August, 2010).

7.    DFO. 2004. The Gully Marine Protected Area. Backgrounder [online]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/back-fiche/2004/hq-ac61a-eng.htm (accessed 31 August, 2010).

8.    DFO. 2010. Regulations for the Gully Marine Protected Area [online]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/e0010439

9.    Latour, P.B., Leger, J., Hines, J.E., Mallory, M.L., Mulders, D.L., Gilchrist, H.G., Smith, P.A. and Dickson, D.L. 2010. Key migratory bird terrestrial habitat sites in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Third Edition. Occasional Paper No. 114. Edited by Gaston, A.J. Environment Canada.

10.    Government of British Columbia. 2010. Land and Resource Management Planning [online]. http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/pubdocs/bcdocs/403777/management_planning.pdf (accessed 31 August, 2010).

9. Stewardship

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    The Centre for Environmental Stewardship and Conservation. 2009. The state of stewardship in Canada. Land Stewardship Centre of Canada. Edmonton, AB. 45 p.

2.    The Centre for Environmental Stewardship and Conservation 2009. A stewardship road map for Canada. Proceedings of the Strengthening Stewardship...Investing at Every Step Conference. Calgary, AB. September, 2009. Edited by The Land Stewardship Centre of Canada. Edmonton, AB. 42 p.

3.    Federal-Provincial-Territorial Stewardship Working Group. 2002. Canada's stewardship agenda: naturally connecting Canadians – a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 8 p.

4.    Marine Stewardship Council. 2010. Certified fisheries [online]. http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/certified (accessed 8 July, 2010).

5.    Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization. 2009. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization conservation and enforcement measures. NAFO/FC Doc No. 10/1. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization. 95 p.

6.    Fisheries Council of Canada. 2008. Avoiding and eliminating by-catch [online]. Fisheries Council of Canada. http://www.fisheriescouncil.ca/page.cfm?ID=5 (accessed 8 July, 2010).

7.    Agricultural and Agri-Food Canada. 2010. Derived from Statistics Canada, 2006 Farm Environmental Management Survey. Environmental farm planning in Canada: a 2006 overview. Agri-Environmental Services Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ottawa, ON.

8.    Metafore's Forest Certification Resource Centre. 2009. CFM certification in Canada 1999-2009 [online]. http://www.certifiedwood.org (accessed 23 October, 2009).

9.    Biodiversity Science Assessment Team. 1994. Biodiversity in Canada: a science assessment for Environment Canada. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 245 p.

10.    Stewardship Centre for British Columbia. 2010. Stewardship Centre for British Columbia [online]. http://www.stewardshipcentre.bc.ca/ (accessed 14 April, 2010).

11.    North American Waterfowl Management Plan. 2004. Strengthening the biological foundation: 2004 strategic guidance. Environment Canada, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. Canada. 22 p.

12.    Statistics Canada. 2010. CANSIM Table 001-0017: estimated areas, yield, production, average farm price and total farm value of principal field crops, in imperial units, annual. Seeded winter wheat for prairie provinces [online]. Statistics Canada.
http://cansim2.statcan.ca/cgi-win/CNSMCGI.EXE?regtkt=&C2Sub=&ARRAYID=10017
&C2DB=PRD&VEC=&LANG=E&SDDSLOC=//www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/*.htm&ROOT
DIR=CII/&RESULTTEMPLATE=CII/CII_PICK&ARRAY_PICK=1&SDDSID=&SDDSDESC#TFtn (accessed 8 July, 2010).

13.    North American Waterfowl Management Plan. 2010. Canadian NAWMP National Tracking System. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

14.    Campbell, L. and Rubec, C.D.A. 2006. Land trusts in Canada: building momentum for the future. Wildlife Habitat Canada. Ottawa, ON. 26 p.

15.    Canadian Land Trust Alliance. 2010. 2010 CLTA land trust census final report. Canadian Land Trust Alliance.

16.    Good, K. and Michalsky, S. 2010. Summary of Canadian experience with conservation easements and their potential application to agri-environmental policy. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ottawa, ON. In press.

17.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Managed forest tax incentive program [online]. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/Forests/2ColumnSubPage/STEL02_166346.html (accessed 5 November, 2009).

18.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Conservation land tax incentive program [online]. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/CLTIP/ (accessed 5 November, 2009).

19.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2008. Participation in Ontario tax incentive programs. Unpublished data.

20.    The Centre for Environmental Stewardship and Conservation. 2009. A review of stewardship programs and activities in Canada's provinces and territories. Alberta Environment. Edmonton, AB. 83 p.

21.    Berkes, F. 2009. Indigenous ways of knowing and the study of environmental change. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 39:151-156.

22.    Berkes, F., Mathias, J., Kislalioglu, M. and Fast, H. 2001. The Canadian Arctic and the Oceans Act: the development of participatory environmental research and management. Ocean and Coastal Management 44:451-469.

23.    Gagnon, C.A. and Berteaux, D. 2009. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge and ecological science: a question of scale. Ecology and Society 14: Article 19.

24.    Government of Nunavut and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 2008. Nunavut Coastal Resource Inventory, Igloolik pilot project. Government of Nunavut. Iqaluit, NU.

25.    Montevecchi, W.A., Coffey, J., Burke, C. and Chaffey, H. 2004. A conservation initiative: nest shelters for common eiders on islands in St. Peter's Bay, Labrador. Cognitive and Behavioral Ecology, Psychology Department, and Coasts Under Stress, Memorial University of Newfoundland. St. John's, NL.

10. Invasive non-native species

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC). Wild species 2010: the general status of species in Canada. National General Status Working Group. In press.

2.    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2006. Global biodiversity outlook 2. Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal, QC. 81 p.

3.    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Global biodiversity outlook 3. Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal, QC. 94 p.

4.    Johannessen, S.C. and McCarter, B. 2010. Ecosystems status and trends report for the Strait of Georgia Ecozone+. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2010/010. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. vi + 45 p.

5.    Mouland, D. 2008. Overview of aquatic invasive species (AIS) prepared for The Exotic and Invasive Species Workshop-Corner Brook, Jan 22-23, 2008. Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. Cornerbrook, NL. 8 p.

6.    MacNair, N., Mills, C., Gillis, B., Smith, M., Landry, T., Locke, A., Smith, A., Davidson, J. and Warris, P. 2010. History of the tunicate invasions in PEI, their impact on the cultured mussel industry and mitigation strategies employed since 1998 [online]. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=17276&tid=282&cid=33372 (accessed 8 September, 2010).

7.    Locke, A., Hanson, J.M., Ellis, K.M., Thompson, J. and Rochette, R. 2007. Invasion of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence by the clubbed tunicate (Styela clava Herdman): potential mechanisms for invasions of Prince Edward Island estuaries. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342:69-77.

8.    Gillespie, G.E., Phillips, A.C., Paltzat, D.L. and Therriault, T.W. 2007. Status of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in British Columbia – 2006. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 2700. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. vii + 39 p.

9.    Schindler, D.W. 2001. The cumulative effects of climate warming and other human stresses on Canadian freshwater in the new millennium. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:18-29. doi:10:1139/cjfas-58-1-18.

10.    Ricciardi, A. 2001. Facilitative interactions among aquatic invaders: is an "invasional meltdown" occurring in the Great Lakes? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:2513-2525.

11.    Great Lakes Commission. 2007. Great Lakes aquatic invasions. Aquatic invasive species prevention and control: outreach, research, management and policy. Environmental Protection Agency. 11 p.

12.    Great Lakes Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Information System (GLANSIS). 2009. Great Lakes nonindigenous species list [online]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/Programs/glansis/great_lakes_list.html (accessed 20 November, 2009).

13.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009 highlights. 13 p.

14.    Metcalfe-Smith, J.L., Zanatta, D.T., Masteller, E.C., Dunn, H.L., Nichols, S.J., Marangelo, P.J. and Schloesser, D.W. 2002. Some nearshore areas in Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair provide refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from the impacts of invading zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.). IAGLR 2002 Conference. University of Manitoba. Winnipeg, Manitoba. June 2-6, 2002.

15.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. 432 p.

16.    Schloesser, D.W. and Nalepa, T.F. 1994. Dramatic decline of unionid bivalves in offshore waters of western Lake Erie after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:2234-2242.

17.    Nalepa, T.F., D.J.Hartson, G.W.Gostenik, D.L.Fanslow and G.A.Lang. 1996. Changes in the freshwater mussel community of Lake St. Clair: from Unionidae to Dreissena polymorpha in eight years. Journal of Great Lakes Research 22:354-369.

18.    Bogan, A.E. 1993. Freshwater bivalve extinctions (Mollusca: Unionidae): a search for causes. American Zoology 33:599-609.

19.    Morris, T.J. and Edwards, A. 2007. Freshwater mussel communities of the Thames River, Ontario 2004-2005. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 2810. 28 p.

20.    Leighton, F.A. 2010. Wildlife pathogens and diseases in Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 7. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

21.    Health Canada. 2003. Average summer temperatures and incidence of West Nile virus in Canada. Map.

22.    McLean, R.G. and Ubico, S.R. 2007. Arboviruses in birds. In Infectious diseases of wild birds. Edited by Thomas, N.J., Hunter, D.B. and Atkinson, C.T. Blackwell Publishing. Ames, IA. Chapter 2. pp. 17-62.

23.    Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. 2010. West Nile virus [online]. http://www.ccwhc.ca/west_nile_virus.php (accessed 31 July, 2010).

24.    Weldon, C., du Preez, L., Hyatt, A., Muller, R. and Speare, R. 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10:2100-2105.

25.    Skerratt, L.F., Berger, L., Speare, R., Cashins, S., McDonald, K.R., Phillott, A.D., Hines, H.B. and Kenyon, N. 2007. Spread of chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs. Ecohealth 4:125-134.

26.    Kilpatrick, A.M., Briggs, C.J. and Daszak, P. 2010. The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:109-118.

27.    Daszak, P., A.A.Cunningham and A.D.Hyatt. 2003. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9:141-150.

28.    Carey, C., Cohen, N. and Rollins-Smith, L. 1999. Amphibian declines: an immunological perspective. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 23:427-458.

29.    Gantress, J., Maniero, G.D. and Cohen, N. 2003. Development and characterization of a model system to study amphibian immune responses to iridoviruses. Virology 311:254-262.

30.    Relyea, R. 2009. A cocktail of contaminants: how mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities. Oecologia 159:363-376.

31.    Ouellet, M., Mikaelian, I., Pauli, B., Rodrigue, J. and Green, D. 2005. Historical evidence of widespread chytrid infection in North American amphibian populations. Conservation Biology 19:1431-1440. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00108.x.

32.    Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. 2008. Canada's national wildlife disease database [online]. http://www.ccwhc.ca/ccwhc_database.php (accessed 23 January, 2009).

33.    Forzán, M.J., Vanderstichel, N.S., Hogan, N.S., Teather, K. and Wood, J. 2010. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three species of wild frogs on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 91:91-96. doi:10.3354/dao02244.

34.    Olson, D.H. 2009. Herpetological conservation in northwestern North America. Northwestern Naturalist 90:61-96.

35.    Schock, D.M., Ruthig, G.R., Collins, J.P., Kutzl, S.J., Carrière, S., Gau, R.J., Veitch, A.M., Larter, N.C.T.D.P., Guthrie, G.A.D.G. and Popko, R.A. 2009. Amphibian chytrid fungus and ranaviruses in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms DAO Special 4:10. doi:10.3354/dao02134.

36.    Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2010. Invasive alien plants in Canada – technical report [online]. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/invenv/techrpt/techrese.shtml#t6 (accessed 13 September, 2010).

37.    Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2008. Invasive alien plants in Canada – summary report [online]. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/invenv/techrpt/summrese.shtml#a3 (accessed 13 September, 2010).

38.    Blossey, B., Skinner, L.C. and Taylor, J. 2001. Impact and management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Biodiversity and Conservation 10:1787-1807.

39.    Hudon, C., Gagnon, P. and Jean, M. 2005. Hydrological factors controlling the spread of common reed (Phragmites australis) in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Ecoscience 12:347-357.

40.    Catling, P.M. and Mitrow, G. 2010. The recent spread and potential distribution of Phragmites australis ssp. australis in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. In press.

41.    Saltonstall, K. 2002. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:2445-2449.

42.    Maheu-Giroux, M. and DeBlois, D. 2007. Landscape ecology of Phragmites australis invasion in networks of linear wetlands. Landscape Ecology
22:285-301.

43.    Chambers, R.M., L.A.Meyerson and K.Saltonstall. 1999. Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquatic Botany 64:261-273.

44.    Meyer, D.L., Johnson, J.M. and Gill, J.W. 2001. Comparison of nekton use of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 209:71-84.

11. Contaminants

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. 2009. AMAP assessment 2009: human health in the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Oslo, Norway. 256 p.

2.    Hickie, B.E., Ross, P.S., Macdonald, R.W. and Ford, J.K.B. 2007. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs. Environmental Science and Technology 41:6613-6619.

3.    Letcher, R., Bustnes, J.O., Dietz, R., Jenssen, B.M., Jorgensen, E.H., Sonne, C., Verreault, J., Vijayan, M. and Gabrielsen, G.W. 2010. Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish. Science of the Total Environment 408:2995-3043.

4.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. Governments of Canada and the United States of America. 432 p.

5.    Wong, C.S.C., Duzgoren-Aydin, N.S., Aydin, A. and Wong, M.H. 2006. Sources and trends of environmental mercury emissions in Asia. Science of the Total Environment 368:649-662.

6.    COSEWIC. 2007. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus (Falco peregrinus pealii subspecies, Falco peregrinus anatum subspecies, and Falco peregrinus tundrius) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 45 p.

7.    Elliott, J.E., Miller, M.J. and Wilson, L.K. 2005. Assessing breeding potential of peregrine falcons based on chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in prey. Environmental Pollution 134:353-361.

8.    Stern, G.A. 2009. Temporal trend studies of trace metals and halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs), including new and emerging persistent compounds, in Mackenzie River burbot, Fort Good Hope, NWT. In Synopsis of research conducted under the 2008-2009 Northern Contaminants program. Edited by Smith, S., Stow, J. and Edwards, J. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Ottawa, ON. pp. 164-171.

9.    Braune, B.M. 2007. Temporal trends of organochlorines and mercury in seabird eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1975-2003. Environmental Pollution 148:599.

10.    Stern, G. 2009. Temporal trends of halogenated organic compounds in Canadian Arctic beluga. In Synopsis of research conduced under the 2008-2009 Northern Contaminants Program. Edited by Smith, S., Stow, J. and Edwards, J. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Ottawa, ON. pp. 123-130.

11.    Tomy, G. 2009. Temporal trends of halogenated chemicals of emerging concern in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Hendrickson Island and Pangnirtung. In Synopsis of research conduced under the 2008-2009 Northern Contaminants Program. Edited by Smith, S., Stow, J. and Edwards, J. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Ottawa, ON. pp. 99-107.

12.    Environment Canada. 2009. Concentrations of contaminants in wildlife compiled from data provided by Canadian Wildlife Service and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Unpublished data.

13.    Carlson, D.L., De Vault, D.S. and Swackhamer, D.L. 2010. On the rate of decline of persistent organic contaminants in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes, 1970-2003. Environmental Science and Technology 44:2004-2010.

14.    Ismail, N., Gewurtz, S.B., Pleskach, K., Whittle, D.M., Helm, P.A., Marvin, C.H. and Tomy, G.T. 2009. Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in Lake Ontario, Canada, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) between 1979 and 2004 and possible influences of food-web changes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:910-920.

15.    Couillard, C.M., Macdonald, R.W., Courtenay, S.C. and Palace, V.P. 2008. Chemical-environment interactions affecting the risk of impacts on aquatic organisms: a review with a Canadian perspective – interactions affecting exposure. Environmental Reviews16:1-17.

16.    Kelly, E.N., Schindler, D.W., St Louis, V.L., Donald, D.B. and Vlaclicka, K.E. 2006. Forest fire increases mercury accumulation by fishes via food web restructuring and increased mercury inputs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:19380-19385.

17.    Couillard, C.M., Courtenay, S.C. and Macdonald, R.W. 2008. Chemical-environment interactions affecting the risk of impacts on aquatic organisms: a review with a Canadian perspective – interactions affecting vulnerability. Environmental Reviews 16:19-44.

18.    Mckinney, M.A., Peacock, E. and Letcher, R.J. 2009. Sea ice-associated diet change increases the levels of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in polar bears. Environmental Science and Technology43:4334-4339.

19.    Government of Canada and United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1995. The Great Lakes: an environmental atlas and resource book, 3rd edition [online]. Government of Canada, United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/index.html (accessed 15 August, 2010).

20.    Gewurtz, S.B., Bhavsar, S.P., Jackson, D.A., Fletcher, R., Awad, E., Moody, R. and Reiner, E.J. 2010. Temporal and spatial trends of organochlorines and mercury in fishes from the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair corridor, Canada. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:100-112.

21.    Environment Canada and Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 2002. Atmospheric deposition in the Great Lakes: there's something in the air. Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. 4 p.

22.    Champoux, L., Moisey, J. and Muir, D.C.G. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29:243-249.

23.    Gauthier, L.T., Hébert, C.E., Weseloh, D.V.C. and Letcher, R.J. 2008. Dramatic changes in the temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes: 1982-2006. Environmental Science and Technology 42:1524-1530.

24.    Batterman, S., Chernyak, S., Gwynn, E., Cantonwine, D., Jia, C., Begnoche, L. and Hickey, J.P. 2007. Trends of brominated diphenyl ethers in fresh and archived Great Lakes fish (1979-2005). Chemosphere 69:444-457.

25.    Environment Canada and U.S.Enviromental Protection Agency. 2005. State of the Great Lakes 2005. 305 p.

26.    International Joint Commission. 2009. Work group report on chemicals of emerging concern. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Priorities 2007-09 Series. 15 p.

27.    Environment Canada. 2006. Ecological screening assessment report on perfluorooctane sulfonate, its salts and its precursors [online]. http://www.ec.gc.ca/CEPARegistry/documents/part/PFOS/ (accessed 20 October, 2009).

28.    Kavanagh, R.J., Balch, G.C., Kiparissis, Y., Niimi, A.J., Sherry, J., Tinson, C. and Metcalf, D. 2004. Endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (Morone americana) from the lower Great Lakes region. Environmental Health Perspective 112:898-202.

29.    Ross, P.S., Stern, G.A. and Lebeuf, M. 2007. Trouble at the top of the food chain: environmental contaminants and health risks in marine mammals – a white paper on research priorities for Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Sidney, BC. 30 p.

30.    Breton, A.R., Fox, G.A. and Chardine, J.W. 2008. Survival of adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a Lake Ontario colony over two decades of environmental change. Waterbirds 31:15-23.

31.    Lebeuf, M., Noel, M., Trottier, S. and Measures, L. 2007. Temporal trends (1987-2002) of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Science of the Total Environment 383:216-231.

32.    Martineau, D., Lemberger, K., Dallaire, A., Labelle, P., Lipscomb, T.P., Michel, P. and Mikaelian, I. 2002. Cancer in wildlife, a case study: beluga from the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:285-292.

33.    Ross, P.S. 2006. Fireproof killer whales (Orcinus orca): flame-retardant chemicals and the conservation imperative in the charismatic icon of British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63:224-234.

34.    Grant, S.C.H. and Ross, P.S. 2002. Southern resident killer whales at risk: toxic chemicals in the British Columbia and Washington environment. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Sidney, B.C. 111 p.

35.    Ross, P.S., Ikonomou, M.G., Barrett-Lennard, L.G. and Addison, R.F. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:504-515.

36.    Krahn, M.M., Hanson, M.B., Schorr, G.S., Emmons, C.K., Burrows, D.G., Bolton, J.L., Baird, R.W. and Ylitalo, G.M. 2009. Effects of age, sex and reproductive status on persistent organic pollutant concentrations in "Southern Resident" killer whales. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58:1522-1529.

12. Nutrient loading and algal blooms

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 100 p.

2.    Environment Canada. 2010. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: water quality [online]. Environment Canada. http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=En&n=68DE8F72-1 (accessed 31 August, 2010).

3.    Codd, G.A., Lindsay, J., Young, F.M., Morrison, L.F. and Metcalf, J.S. 2005. Harmful cyanobacteria: from mass mortalities to management measures. In Harmful cyanobacteria. Aquatic Ecology Series. Edited by Huisman, J., Matthijs, H.C.P. and Visser, P.M. Springer. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 1-23.

4.    Environment Canada. 2008. Cyanobacteria in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin [online]. http://www.qc.ec.gc.ca/csl/inf/inf073_e.html (accessed 27 May, 2010).

5.    Van Dolah, F.M. 2000. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence. Environmental Health Perspectives 108:133-141.

6.    Diaz, R.J. and Rosenberg, R.. 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321:926-929.

7.    Hallegraeff, G. 2009. Impacts of climate change on harmful algal blooms [online]. Elsevier. http://www.scitopics.com/Impacts_of_Climate_Change_on_Harmful_Algal_Blooms.html (accessed 1 August, 2010).

8.    Hall, R.I., Leavitt, P.R., Quinlan, R., Dixit, A.S. and Smol, J.P. 1999. Effects of agriculture, urbanization, and climate on water quality in the northern Great Plains. Limnology and Oceanography 44:739-756.

9.    Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board. 2006. Reducing nutrient loading to Lake Winnipeg and its watershed: our collective responsibility and commitment to action. Report to the Minister of Water Stewardship. 78 p.

10.    Shipley, E. and Kling, H. 2010. Unpublished analysis in: Lake Winnipeg and its watershed, a report prepared for Canadian biodiversity: ecosystem status and trends 2010. Manitoba Water Stewardship. Unpublished report.

11.    Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board. 2005. Our collective responsibility: reducing nutrient loading to Lake Winnipeg. An interim report to the Minister of Manitoba Water Stewardship. Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board. Winnipeg, MB. 52 p.

12.    Manitoba Water Stewardship. 2008. Water Quality Management Section. Unpublished data.

13.    Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs. 2009. Bilan des lacs et cours d'eau touchés par une fleur d'eau d'algues bleu-vert au Québec. De 2004 à 2008 [online]. http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/eau/algues-bv/bilan/liste_comparative.asp (accessed July, 2009).

14.    Zurawell, R. 2010. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: Alberta's experience with a global issue. Alberta Environment. Presentation available at http://www.msss.gouv.qc.ca/sujets/santepub/environnement/download.php?f=3832fe1a34056c4aa74ac90d8a8ec3d9.

15.    Northern River Basins Study. 1996. Northern River Basins Study: the legacy. Volume 1: collective findings. Alberta Department of the Environment, Environment Canada, and Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources. Edmonton, AB. CD-Rom.

16.    Government of Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1995. The Great Lakes today: concerns. In The Great Lakes: an environmental atlas and research book. Toronto, ON and Chicago, IL.

17.    Richards, R.P., Baker, D.B., Crumrine, J.P. and Kramer, J.W. 2008. Record-setting phosphorus loads from agricultural watersheds in Ohio. 2008 USDA-CSREES National Water Conference. Sparks, NV. February 3-6, 2008.

18.    Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 2008. The North American mosaic: an overview of key environmental issues. Montreal, QC. 62 p.

19.    Vanderploeg, H.A., Liebig, J.R., Carmichael, W.W., Agry, M.A., Johengen, T.H., Fahnenstiel, G.L. and Nalepa, T.F. 2001. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) selective filtration promoted toxic Microcystis blooms in Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and Lake Erie. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1208-1221.

20.    Sarnelle, O., Wilson, A.E., Hamilton, S.K., Knoll, L.B. and Rainkow, D.F. 2005. Complex interactions between the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the harmful phytoplankter Microcystis aureginosa. Limnology and Oceanography 50:896-904.

21.    Vanderploeg, H.A., Johengen, T.H. and Liebig, J.R. 2009. Feedback between zebra mussel selective feeding and algal composition affects mussel condition: did the regime changer pay a price for its success? Freshwater Biology 54:47-63.

22.    U.S .Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Algal blooms in western Lake Erie [online]. http://www.epa.gov/med/grosseile_site/indicators/algae-blooms.html (accessed 21 September, 2010).

23.    NOAA. 2009. Great Lakes CoastWatch node [online]. http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/Task_rpts/1994/cmleshk03-1.html August 25, 2009 MODIS imagery on Terra satellite.

24.    Watson, S.B., Boyer, G. and Ridal, J. 2008. Taste and odour and cyanobacterial toxins: impairment, prediction and management in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65:1-18.

25.    Millie, D.F., Fahnenstiel, G.L., Bressie, J.D., Pigg, R.J., Rediske, R.R., Klarer, D.M., Tester, P.A. and Litaker, R.W. 2009. Late-summer phytoplankton in western Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes): bloom distributions, toxicity, and environmental influences. Aquatic Ecology 43:915-934.

26.    Jensen, E.V. and Epp, P.F. 2002. Water quality trends in Okanagan, Skaha and Osoyoos lakes in response to nutrient reductions and hydrologic variation. Ministry of Water Land and Air Protection. Penticton, BC. 17 p.

27.    Martin, J.L., Hanke, A.R. and LeGresley, M.M. 2009. Long term phytoplankton monitoring, including harmful algal blooms, in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada. Journal of Sea Research 61:76-83.

28.    DFO. 2010. 2010 Canadian marine ecosystem status and trends report. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Science Advisory Report No. 2010/030. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 37 p.

29.    NASA Earth Observatory. 2009. SeaWiFS project/ORBIMAGE [online]. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Centre and ORBIMAGE. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=14023 (accessed 30 July, 2010).

13. Acid deposition

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Environment Canada. 2005. Canadian acid deposition science assessment 2004. Environment Canada, Meterological Service of Canada. Ottawa, ON. 440 p.

2.    Jeffries, D.S., McNicol, D.K. and Weeber, R.C. 2005. Effects on aquatic chemistry and biology. In Canadian acid deposition science assessment 2004. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. Chapter 6. pp. 203-278.

3.    Holt, C.A., Yan, N.D. and Somers, K.M. 2003. pH 6 as the threshold to use in critical load modeling for zooplankton community change with acidification in lakes of south-central Ontario: accounting for morphometry and geography. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60:151-158.

4.    Jeffries, D.S. 1997. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 3: the effects on Canada's lakes, rivers and wetlands. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 178 p.

5.    Doka, S.E., McNicol, D.K., Mallory, M.L., Wong, I., Minns, C.K. and Yan, N.D. 2003. Assessing potential for recovery of biotic richness and indicator species due to changes in acidic deposition and lake pH in five areas of southeastern Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 88:53-101.

6.    Gardner, T. 2001. Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon in conservation biology. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 24:25-44.

7.    Wiener, J.G., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Heinz, G.H. and Scheuhammer, W.M. 2003. Ecotoxicology of mercury. In Handbook of ecotoxicology. Edited by Hoffman, D.J., Rattner, B.A., Burton, G.A. and Cairns, J. Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton, FL. Chapter 16. pp. 409-463.

8.    Drysdale, C., Burgess, N.M., d'Entremont, A., Carter, J. and Brun, G. 2005. Mercury in brook trout, white perch and yellow perch in Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site. In Mercury cycling in a wetland dominated ecosystem: a multidisciplinary study. Edited by O'Driscoll, N.J., Rencz, A.N. and Lean, D.R.S. SETAC Press. Pensacola, FL. pp. 321-346.

9.    Kamman, N.C., Burgess, N.M., Driscoll, C.T., Simonin, H.A., Goodale, W., Linehan, J., Estabrook, R., Hutcheson, M., Major, A., Scheuhammer, A.M. and Scruton, D.A. 2005. Mercury in freshwater fish of northeast North America – a geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases. Ecotoxicology 14:163-180.

10.    Burgess, N.M. and Meyer, M.W. 2008. Methylmercury exposure associated with reduced productivity in common loons. Ecotoxicology 17:83-91.

11.    Duchesne, L., Ouimet, R. and Houle, D. 2002. Basal area growth of sugar maple in relation to acid deposition, stand health, and soil nutrients. Journal of Environmental Quality 31:1676-1683.

12.    Driscoll, C.T., Lawrence, G.B., Bulger, A.J., Butler, T.J., Cronan, C.S., Eagar, C., Lambert, K.F., Likens, G.E., Stoddard, J.L. and Weathers, K.C. 2001. Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies. BioScience 51:180-198.

13.    Jeffries, D.S. and Ouimet, R. 2005. Critical loads – are they being exceeded? In Canadian acid deposition science assessment 2004. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. Chapter 8. pp. 341-368.

14.    National Atlas of Canada. 1991. The potential of soils and bedrock to reduce the acidity of atmospheric deposition. 5th Edition, 1978-1995. Natural Resources Canada. Ottawa, ON.

15.    Scott, K.A., Wissel, B.J., Gibson, J.J. and Birks, S.J. 2010. Chemical characteristics and acid sensitivity of boreal headwater lakes in northwest Saskatchewan. Journal of Limnology 69:33-44.

16.    Nasr, M., Castonguay, M., Ogilvie, J., Raymond, B.A. and Arp, P.A. 2010. Modelling and mapping critical loads and exceedances for the Georgia Basin, British Columbia, using a zero base-cation depletion criterion. Journal of Limnology 69 (Suppl. 1):181-192.

17.    Jeffries, D., Wong, I., Dennis, I. and Sloboda, M. 2010. Terrestrial and aquatic critical loads map. Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Branch. Unpublished.

18.    Jeffries, D., Wong, I. and Sloboda, M. 2010. Boreal Shield steady-state exceedances for forest soils or lakes map. Prepared for Boreal Shield Ecozone status and trends report. Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Branch. Unpublished.

19.    Jeffries, D.S., Clair, T.A., Couture, S., Dillon, P.J., Dupont, J., Keller, W., McNicol, D.K., Turner, M.A., Vet, R. and Weeber, R. 2003. Assessing the recovery of lakes in southeastern Canada from the effects of acidic deposition. Ambio 32:176-182.

20.    Canada-United States. 2008. Canada - United States Air Quality Agreement. 2008 progress report. International Joint Commission. Ottawa, ON and Washington, DC. 72 p.

21.    Weeber, R.C., Jeffries, D.S. and McNicol, D. 2005. Recovery of aquatic ecosystems. In Canadian acid deposition science assessment 2004. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. Chapter 7. pp. 279-340.

22.    Jeziorski, A., Yan, N.D., Paterson, A.M., DeSellas, A.M., Turner, M.A., Jeffries, D.S., Keller, B., Weeber, R.C., McNicol, D.K., Palmer, M.E., McIver, K., Arseneau, K., Ginn, B.K., Cumming, B.F. and Smol, J.P. 2008. The widespread threat of calcium decline in fresh waters. Science 322:1374-1377.

23.    Yan, N.D., Somers, K.M., Girard, R.E., Paterson, A.M., Keller, W., Ramcharan, C.W., Rusak, J.A., Ingram, R., Morgan, G.E. and Gunn, J.M. 2008. Long-term trends in zooplankton of Dorset, Ontario lakes: the probable interactive effects of changes in pH, total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and predators. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65:862-877.

24.    Snucins, E. 2003. Recolonization of acid-damaged lakes by the benthic invertebrates Stenacron interpunctatum, Stenonema femoratum and Hyalella azteca. Ambio 32:225-229.

25.    Snucins, E. and Gunn, J.M. 2003. Use of rehabilitation experiments to understand the recovery dynamics of acid-stressed fish populations. Ambio 32:240-243.

26.    Aurora Trout Recovery Team. 2006. Recovery strategy for Aurora trout (Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Ottawa, ON. 35 p.

27.    Yan, N.D., Paterson, A.M., Somers, K.M. and Scheider, W.A. 2008. An introduction to the Dorset special issue: transforming understanding of factors that regulate aquatic ecosystems on the southern Canadian Shield. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65:781-785.

28.    Watt, W.D., Scott, C.D., Zamora, P.J. and White, W.J. 2000. Acid toxicity levels in Nova Scotian rivers have not declined in synchrony with the decline in sulfate levels. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 118:203-229.

29.    Clair, T.A., Dennis, I.F., Scruton, D.A. and Gilliss, M. 2007. Freshwater acidification research in Atlantic Canada: a review of results and predictions for the future. Environmental Reviews 15:153-167.

30.    Clair, T.A., Dennis, I.F., Amiro, P.G. and Cosby, B.J. 2004. Past and future chemistry changes in acidified Nova Scotian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rivers: a dynamic modeling approach. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:1965-1975.

31.    Zho, Y., Duan, L., Xing, J., Larssen, T., Nielsen, C.P. and Halo, J. 2009. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough? Environmental Science and Technology 43:8021-8026.

32.    United Nations Environment Programme. 2002. State of the environment and policy retrospective, 1972-2002: atmosphere. In Global environment outlook 3: past, present and future perspectives. Edited by Clarke, R., Lamb, R. and Roe Ward, D. Earthscan Publications. London, UK. Chapter 2. pp. 210-239.

14. Climate change

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Environment Canada. 2010. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators glossary [online]. http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=En&n=54C113A2-1#glossaryc (accessed 17 April, 2010).

2.    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2006. Global biodiversity outlook 2. Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal, QC. 81 p.

3.    Prowse, T.D., Furgal, C., Wrona, F.J. and Reist, J.D. 2009. Implications of climate change for northern Canada: freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. AMBIO: a Journal of the Human Environment 38:282-289.

4.    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment. Synthesis Report. Edited by Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. IPCC Secretariat. Geneva, Switzerland. 104 p.

5.    Zhang, X., Brown, R., Vincent, L., Skinner, W., Feng, Y. and Mekis, E. 2010. Canadian climate trends 1950-2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 5. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

6.    Murphy-Klassen, H.M., Underwood, T.J., Sealy, S.G. and Czyrnyj, A.A. 2005. Long-term trends in spring arrival dates of migrant birds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba, in relation to climate change. Auk 122:1130-1148.

7.    Gjerdrum, C., Vallée, A.M.J., St.Clair, C.C., Bertram, D.F., Ryder, J.L. and Blackburn, G.S. 2003. Tufted puffin reproduction reveals ocean climate variability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:9377-9382.

8.    Gaston, A.J., Bertram, D.F., Boyne, A.W., Chardine, J.W., Davoren, G., Diamond, A.W., Hedd, A., Montevecchi, W.A., Hipfner, J.M., Lemon, M.J.F., Mallory, M.L., Rail, J.-F. and Robertson, G.J. 2009. Changes in Canadian seabird populations and ecology since 1970 in relation to changes in oceanography and food webs. Environmental Reviews 17:267-286.

9.    Hitch, A.T. and Leberg, p.L. 2007. Breeding distributions of North American bird species moving north as a result of climate change. Conservation Biology 21:534-539.

10.    Higdon, J.W. and Ferguson, S.H. 2009. Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century. Ecological Applications 19:1365-1375.

11.    Cluff, H.D. 2006. Extension of coyote, Canis latrans, breeding range in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 120:67-70.

12.    Veitch, A.M. 2001. An unusual record of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 15:172-175.

13.    Slough, B. and Jung, T.S. 2007. Diversity and distribution of the terrestrial mammals of the Yukon Territory: a review. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 121:119-127.

14.    Roseberry, J.L. and Woolf, A. 1998. Habitat-population density relationships for white-tailed deer in Illinois. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:252-258.

15.    Ermine, W., Nilson, R., Sauchyn, D., Sauve, E. and Smith, R.Y. 2006. Isi Askiwan – the state of the land: Prince Alberta Grand Council elders' forum on climate change. Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative, Report No. 05-04. 49 p.

16.    Ashford, G. and Castleden, J. 2001. Final report: Inuit observations on climate change. International Institute for Sustainable Development. 27 p.

17.    Larivière, S. 2004. Range expansion of raccoons in the Canadian Prairies – review of hypotheses. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:955-963.

18.    Hinzman, L.D., Bettez, N.D., Bolton, W.R., Chapin, F.S., Dyurgerov, M.B., Fastie, C.L., Griffith, B., Hollister, R.D., Hope, A., Huntington, H.P., Jensen, A.M., Jia, G.J., Jorgenson, T., Kane, D.L., Klein, D.R., Kofinas, G., Lynch, A.H., Lloyd, A.H., McGuire, A.D., Nelson, F.E., Oechel, W.C., Osterkamp, T.E., Racine, C.H., Romanovsky, V.E., Stone, R.S., Stow, D.A., Sturm, M., Tweedie, C.E., Vourlitis, G.L., Walker, M.D., Walker, D.A., Webber, P.J., Welker, J.M., Winker, K. and Yoshikawa, K. 2005. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other Arctic regions. Climatic Change 72:251-298.

19.    Jia, G.S.J., Epstein, H.E. and Walker, D.A. 2009. Vegetation greening in the Canadian Arctic related to decadal warming. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:2231-2238.

20.    Wang, M.Y. and Overland, J.E. 2004. Detecting Arctic climate change using Köppen climate classification. Climatic Change 67:43-62.

21.    Olthof, I. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Treeline vegetation composition and change in Canada's western subarctic from AVHRR and canopy reflectance modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 114:805-815.

22.    Hudson, J.M.G. and Henry, G.H.R. 2009. Increased plant biomass in a High Arctic heath community from 1981 to 2008. Ecology 90:2657-2663.

23.    Walker, M.D., Wahren, C.H., Hollister, R.D., Henry, G.H.R., Ahlquist, L.E., Alatalo, J.M., Bret-Harte, M.S., Calef, M.P., Callaghan, T.V., Carroll, A.B., Epstein, H.E., Jónsdóttir, I.S., Klein, J.A., Magnússom, B., Molau, U., Oberbauer, S.F., Rewa, S.P., Robinson, C.H., Shaver, G.R., Suding, K.N., Thompson, C.C., Tolvanen, A., Totland, O., Turner, P.L., Tweedie, C.E., Webber, P.J. and Wookey, P.A. 2006. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. Washington DC. Vol. 103, pp. 1342-1346.

15. Ecosystem services

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. Island Press. Washington, DC. 245 p.

2.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. Island Press. Washington, DC. 137 p.

3.    Cross, C.L., Lapi, L. and Perry, E.A. 1991. Production of chinook and coho salmon from British Columbia hatcheries, 1971 through 1989. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1816. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 48 p.

4.    Beamish, R.J., Noakes, D.J., McFarlane, G.A., Pinnix, W., Sweeting, R. and King, J. 2000. Trends in coho marine survival in relation to the regime concept. Fisheries Oceanography 9:114-119.

5.    Crawford, W.R. and Irvine, J.R. 2009. State of physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2009/022. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. vi + 121 p.

6.    Sweeting, R.M., Beamish, R.J., Noakes, D.J. and Neville, C.M. 2003. Replacement of wild coho salmon by hatchery-reared coho salmon in the Strait of Georgia over the past three decades. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23:492-502.

7.    Simpson, K., Dobson, D., Semple, R., Lehmann, S., Baillie, S. and Matthews, I. 2001. Status in 2000 of coho stocks adjacent to the Strait of Georgia. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2001/144. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 91 p.

8.    Environment Yukon. 2005. Yukon state of the environment report 2005. Government of Yukon. Whitehorse, YT. 60 p.

9.    Ford, J.D., Pearce, T., Gilligan, J., Smit, B. and Oakes, J. 2008. Climate change and hazards associated with ice use in northern Canada. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 40:647-659.

10.    Laidler, G.J., Ford, J.D., Gough, W.A., Ikummaq, T., Gagnon, A.S., Kowal, S., Qrunnut, K. and Irngaut, C. 2009. Travelling and hunting in a changing Arctic: assessing Inuit vulnerability to sea ice change in Igloolik, Nunavut. Climatic Change 94:363-397.

11.    Berkes, F. and Jolly, D. 2001. Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Ecology and Society 5.

12.    Pearce, T., Smit, B., Duerden, F., Ford, J.D., Goose, A. and Kataoyak, F. 2010. Inuit vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. Polar Record 46:157-177.

13.    Hertlein, L. 1999. Lake Winnipeg regulation Churchill-Nelson river diversion project in the Crees of northern Manitoba, Canada. World Commission on Dams. Cape Town, South Africa. 28 p.

14.    Harvey, W.F. and Rodrigue, J. 2009. A breeding pair survey of Canada geese in northern Quebec – 2009. Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Canadian Wildlife Service. 12 p.

15.    Peloquin, C. and Berkes, F. 2009. Local knowledge, subsistence harvests, and social-ecological complexity in James Bay. Human Ecology 37:533-545.

16.    Peloquin, C. 2007. Variability, change and continuity in social-ecological systems: insights from James Bay Cree cultural ecology. Thesis (Master of Natural Resource Management). Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba. Winnipeg, MB. 155 p.

17.    European Commission. 2008. The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: an interim report. European Communities. Wesseling, Germany.

18.    Anielski, M. and Wilson, S. 2005. Counting Canada's natural capital: assessing the real value of Canada's boreal ecosystems. The Pembina Institute and the Canadian Boreal Initiative. Drayton Valley, AB. 78 p.

19.    Gordon, B.C. 2005. 8,000 years of caribou and human seasonal migration in the Canadian barrenlands. Rangifer Special Issue No. 16:155-162.

20.    InterGroup Consultants Ltd. 2008. Economic valuation and socio-cultural perspectives of the estimated harvest of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq caribou herds, submitted to the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. 28 p.

21.    Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. 2009. 27th Annual report 2008-2009. Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. Stonewall, MB. 66 p.

22.    Wakelyn, L. 13 April, 2010. Beverly and Quamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. Personal communication.

23.    Wilson, S.J. 2008. Ontario's wealth, Canada's future: appreciating the value of the greenbelt's eco-services. Consultant report on behalf of Friends of the Greenbelt Foundation and David Suzuki Foundation. David Suzuki Foundation. Vancouver, BC. 70 p.

24.    Friends of the Greenbelt Foundation. 2009. Ontario's greenbelt. As the Crow Flies cARTography. Map.

HABITAT, WILDLIFE, AND ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

16. Agricultural landscapes as habitat

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Statistics Canada. 2008. 2006 census of agriculture [online]. Government of Canada. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/ca-ra2006/index-eng.htm (accessed 8 August, 2010).

2.    Huffman, T., Ogston, R., Fisette, T., Daneshfar, B., Gasser, P.Y., White, L., Maloley, M. and Chenier, R. 2006. Canadian agricultural land-use and land management data for Kyoto reporting. Canadian Journal of Soil Science86:431-439.

3.    Javorek, S.K. and Grant, M.C. 2010. Trends in wildlife habitat capacity on agricultural land in Canada, 1986-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 14. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

4.    COSEWIC. 2004. Canadian species at risk, November 2004. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 49 p.

5.    Watmough, M.D. and Schmoll, M.J. 2007. Environment Canada's Prairie and Northern Region habitat monitoring program phase II: recent habitat trends in the Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. Technical Report Series No. 493. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Edmonton, AB. 135 p.

6.    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Waterfowl breeding population and habitat survey [online]. Division of Migratory Birds Management, U.S. Department of the Interior. http://migbirdapps.fws.gov/ (accessed 20 July, 2010).

7.    Drever, M.C., Nudds, T.D. and Clark, R.G. 2007. Agricultural policy and nest success of prairie ducks in Canada and the United States. Avian Conservation and Ecology 2:5-21.

8.    Emery, R.B., Howerter, D.W., Armstrong, L.M., Anderson, M.G., Devries, J.H. and Joynt, B.L. 2005. Seasonal variation in waterfowl nesting success and its relation to cover management in the Canadian prairies. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1181-1193.

9.    Podruzny, K.M., Devries, J.H., Armstrong, L.M. and Rotella, J.J. 2002. Long-term response of northern pintails to changes in wetlands and agriculture in the Canadian prairie pothole region. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:993-1010.

10.    North American Waterfowl Management Plan. 2010. Canadian NAWMP National Tracking System. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

11.    Statistics Canada. 2010. CANSIM Table 001-0017: estimated areas, yield, production, average farm price and total farm value of principal field crops, in imperial units, annual. Seeded winter wheat for prairie provinces [online]. Statistics Canada. http://cansim2.statcan.ca/cgi-win/CNSMCGI.EXE?regtkt=&C2Sub=&ARRAYID=10017
&C2DB=PRD&VEC=&LANG=E&SDDSLOC=//www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/*.htm&ROOT
DIR=CII/&RESULTTEMPLATE=CII/CII_PICK&ARRAY_PICK=1&SDDSID=&SDDSDESC#TFtn (accessed 8 July, 2010).

12.     Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. 2006. Percent of total hectares seeded using zero-till in Saskatchewan, PHJV database (accessed May 2010). Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. Edmonton, AB.

17. Species of special interest: economic, cultural, or ecological

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC). Wild species 2010: the general status of species in Canada. National General Status Working Group. In press.

2.    COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada [online]. Government of Canada. http://www.cosewic.gc.ca (accessed 7 July, 2010).

3.    Government of Canada. 2010. Species at Risk Public Registry [online]. Government of Canada. http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/default_e.cfm

Amphibians

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Archer, R., Wheeler, H. and Sass, D.J. 2009. Coastal wetland amphibian communities, indicator # 4504. In State of the Great Lakes 2009. Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 210-215.

2.    DesGranges, J.-L. 2002. Biodiversity portrait of the St. Lawrence [online]. Environment Canada. http://www.qc.ec.gc.ca/faune/biodiv/en/table_contents.html (accessed 7 July, 2010).

3.    Matsuda, B., Green, D.M. and Gregory, P.T. 2006. Amphibians and reptiles of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum (RBCM) Handbook. Victoria, B.C. 266 p.

4.    Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. and Hyatt, A.D. 2003. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9:141-150.

5.    Chinchar, V.G. 2002. Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae): emerging cold-blooded killers – brief review. Archives of Virology 147:447-470.

6.    Duffus, A.L.J., Pauli, B.D., Wozney, K., Brunetti, C.R. and Berrill, M. 2008. Frog virus 3-like infections in aquatic amphibian communities. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44:109-120.

7.    Schock, D.M., Bollinger, T.K., Chinchar, V.G., Jankovich, J.K. and Collins, J.P. 2008. Experimental evidence that amphibian ranaviruses are multi-host pathogens. Copeia 2008:131-141.

8.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. 432 p.

9.    Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Fischman, D.L. and Waller, R.W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306:1783-1786.

Fishes using freshwater habitat

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Nelson, J.S. 2006. Fishes of the world, 4th ed. Edited by Hoboken, J.J. John Wiley and Sons. 624 p.

2.    Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC). 2006. Wild species 2005: the general status of species in Canada [online]. Government of Canada. http://www.wildspecies.ca/wildspecies2005/index.cfm?lang=e (accessed 1 May, 2009).

3.    Jelks, H.L., Walsh, J., Burkhead, N.M., Contreras-Balderas, S., D¡az-Pardo, E., Hendrickson, D.A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, N.E., McCormick, F., Nelson, J.S., Platania, S.P., Porter, B.A., Renaud, C.B., Schmitter-Soto, J.J., Taylor, E.B. and Warren Jr, M.L. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33:372-407.

4.    Monk, W.A., Baird, D.J., Curry, R.A., Glozier, N. and Peters, D.L. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 20. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

5.    FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. 2009. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2008. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. 176 p.

6.    Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 2009. Commercial fisheries: landings: freshwater [online]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/stats/commercial/land-debarq/freshwater-eaudouce/2006-eng.htm (accessed 16 August, 2010).

7.   Hutchings, J.A. and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2009. Canadian species at risk (2006-2008), with particular emphasis on fishes. Environmental Reviews 17:53-63.

8.    Hutchings, J.A. 2010. Collation of freshwater and diadromous fish species assessed from April 1980 to April 2010 by COSEWIC.

9.    COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC wildlife species assessments [online]. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct0/index_e.cfm (accessed 7 September, 2010).

10.    Dextrase, A.J. and Mandrak, N.E. 2006. Impacts of alien invasive species on freshwater fauna at risk in Canada. Biological Invasions 8:13-24.

11.    Lévesque, L.M. and Dubé, M.G. 2007. Review of the effects of in-stream pipeline crossing construction on aquatic ecosystems and examination of Canadian methodologies for impact assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 132:395-409.

12.  Reid, S.M., Mandrak, N.E., Carl, L.M. and Wilson, C.C. 2008. Influence of dams and habitat condition on the distribution of redhorse (Moxostoma) species in the Grand River watershed, Ontario. Environmental Biology of Fishes 81:111-125.

13.    Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2009. Wildlife species search: sturgeon [online]. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct1/SearchResult_e.cfm?commonName=Sturgeon (accessed 16 August, 2010).

14.    Welch, D.W., Turo, S. and Batten, S.D. 2006. Large-scale marine and freshwater movements of white sturgeon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:386-389.

15.    COSEWIC. 2003. COSEWIC Assessment and update status report on the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 51 p.

16.    McAdam, S.O., Walters, C.J. and Nistor, C. 2005. Linkages between white sturgeon recruitment and altered bed substrates in the Nechako River, Canada. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1448-1456.

17.    Species Survival Commission. 2009. Freshwater fish facts. IUCN red list of threatened species, 2009 update. IUCN. 3 p.

18.    Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 2009. Pacific salmon [online]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/decisions/fm-2009-gp/pac-salmon-saumon-eng.htm (accessed 23 August, 2010).

19.    Hurlburt, D. 2008. Synthesis of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (prepared for the Ecosystem Status and Trends Report Secretariat). 170 p. Unpublished report.

20.    Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2009. The wild Atlantic salmon conservation policy – a snapshot. Canada's policy for conservation of wild Atlantic salmon [online]. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/policies-politiques/wasp-pss/wasp-psas-2009-eng.htm#toc-was-what (accessed 8 July, 2010).

21.    Wolfe, B.B., Karst-Riddoch, T.L., Vardy, S.R., Falcone, M.D., Hall, R.I. and Edwards, T.W.D. 2005. Impacts of climate and river flooding on the hydro-ecology of a floodplain basin, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada since A.D. 1700. Quaternary Research 64:147-162.

22.    Lapointe, M. 2010. Overview of the Fraser sockeye situation. Appendix C. In Synthesis of evidence from a workshop on the decline of Fraser River Sockeye June 15-17, 2010. A report to the Pacific Salmon Commission, Vancouver, B.C. Edited by Peterman, R.M., Marmorek, D., Beckman, B., Bradford, M., Mantua, N., Riddell, B.E., Scheuerell, M., Staley, M., Wieckowiski, K., Windon, J.R. and Wood, C.C. Pacific Salmon Commission. 35 p. + appendices.

23.    DFO. 2010. Pre-season run size forecasts for Fraser River sockeye salmon in 2010. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Advisory Report 2010/031. 11 p.

24.    Peterman, R.M., Marmorek, D., Beckman, B., Bradford, M., Mantua, N., Riddell, B.E., Scheuerell, M., Staley, M., Wieckowiski, K., Windon, J.R. and Wood, C.C. 2010. Synthesis of evidence from a workshop on the decline of Fraser River sockeye, June 15-17, 2010. A report to the Pacific Salmon Commission, Vancouver, B.C. 123 p. + appendices.

25.    Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 2010. Management of Fraser River Sockeye Fisheries [online]. Department of Fisheries and Oceans. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/back-fiche/2010/hq-ac35a-eng.htm (accessed 19 August, 2010).

26.    Patterson, D.A., Macdonald, J.S., Skibo, K.M., Barnes, D., Guthrie, I. and Hills, J.A. 2007. Reconstructing the summer thermal history of the lower Fraser River, 1941 to 2006, and implications for adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 2724. 43 p.

27.    Rand, P.S., Hinch, S.G., Morrison, J., Foreman, M.G.G., MacNutt, M.J., Macdonald, J.S., Healey, M.C., Farrell, A.P. and Higgs, D.A. 2006. Effects of river discharge, temperature, and future climates on energetics and mortality of adult migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:655-667.

28.    Fraser River Environmental Watch data provided by J. Morrison. 2010. Fraser River mean summer temperature, update to Patterson et al., 2007. Unpublished data.

29.    Morrison, J., Quick, M.C. and Foreman, M.G.G. 2002. Climate change in the Fraser River watershed: flow and temperature projections. Journal of Hydrology 263:230-244.

30.    Gibson, J., Hubley, B., Chaput, G., Dempson, J.B., Caron, F. and Amiro, P. 2006. Summary of status and abundance trends for eastern Canadian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2006/026. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. 31 p.

31.  Nova Scotia Salmon Federation. 2009. Nova Scotia salmon federation news and issues: acid rain [online]. http://www.novascotiasalmon.ns.ca/newsandissues/acidrain.htm (accessed 1 March, 2009.

32.    Watt, W., Scott, C.D., Zamora, P.J. and White, W.J. 2000. Acid toxicity levels in Nova Scotian rivers have not declined in synchrony with the decline in sulfate levels. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 118:203-229.

33.    Miramichi River Environmental Assessment Committee and Atlantic Coastal Action Program. 2007. Statement of the environment report for the Miramichi watershed 2007. Environment Canada. 134 p.

34.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2010. State of resources reporting, American eel in Ontario, February 2007 report and 2010 update. Government of Ontario. Peterborough, ON. 6 p.

35.    COSEWIC. 2006. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the American eel Anguilla rostrata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 71 p.

36.    de Lafontaine, Y., Gingras, F., Labonte, D., Marchand, F., La Croix, E. and Lagace, M. 2009. Decline of the American eel in the St. Lawrence River: effects of local hydroclimatic conditions on CPUE Indices. American Fisheries Society Symposium No. 58. Edited by Casselman, J. and Cairns, D.K. 228 p.

37.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. 432 p.

38.    McCullough, R. and Stegemann, E.C. 2010. Common prey fish of New York [online]. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7031.html (accessed 24 August, 2010).

39.    Shipley, E. and Kling, H. 2010. Unpublished analysis in: Lake Winnipeg and its watershed, a report prepared for Canadian biodiversity: ecosystem status and trends 2010. Manitoba Water Stewardship. Unpublished report.

40.    Johnston, T.A., Lysack, W. and Leggett, W.C. 2010. Abundance, growth, and life history characteristics of sympatric walleye (Sander vitreus) and sauger (Sander canadensis) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba. Journal of Great Lakes Research In Press, Corrected Proof. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.06.009.

41.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2009. Great Lakes fishery data. Unpublished data.

42.    Baldwin, N.S., Saalfeld R.W., Dochoda, M.R., Buettner, H.J. and Eshenroder, R.L. 2009. Commercial fish production in the Great Lakes 1867-2006 [online]. Great Lakes Fishery Commission. http://www.glfc.org/databases/commercial/commerc.php (accessed 24 August, 2010).

43.    Jude, D.J. and Leach, J. 1999. The Great Lakes fisheries, 2nd edition. In Inland fisheries management in North America. Edited by Kohler, C.C. and W.A.Hubert. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, Maryland. pp. 623-656.

44.    Orok, R. and Johnson, N. 2005. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada [online]. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/stats/rec/can/2005/index-eng.htm (accessed 10 August, 2010).

45.    Hofmann, N. 2008. Gone fishing: a profile of recreational fishing in Canada. EnviroStats 2:7-13.

Birds

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    BirdLife International. 2010. State of the world's birds. [online]. BirdLife International. http://www.biodiversityinfo.org (accessed 28 April, 2010.

2.    Butcher, G.S. and Niven, D.K. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas Bird Count and the Breeding Bird Survey to determine the continental status and trends of North America birds. National Audubon Society. Ivyland, PA. 34 p.

3.    Niven, D.K., Butcher, G.S., Bancroft, G.T., Monahan, W.B. and Langham, G. 2009. Birds and climate change: ecological disruption in motion. National Audubon Society. New York, NY. 15 p.

4.    Hitch, A.T. and Leberg, P.L. 2007. Breeding distributions of North American bird species moving north as a result of climate change. Conservation Biology 21:534-539.

5.    Donaldson, G., Hyslop, C., Morrison, R.I.G., Dickson, D.L. and Davidson, I. 2000. Canadian shorebird conservation plan. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 28 p.

6.    Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN). 2009. WHSRN list of sites [online]. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences. http://www.whsrn.org/sites/list-sites (accessed 30 July, 2010).

7.    Gratto-Trevor, C., Morrison, R., Collins, B., Rausch, J. and Johnston, V. 2010. Trends in Canadian shorebirds. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 13. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

8.  Morrison, R.I.G. 2001. Shorebird population trends and issues in Canada – an overview. Bird Trends Newsletter # 8: Shorebirds 1-5.

9.    Morrison, R.I.G., McCaffery, B.J., Gill, R.E., Skagen, S.K., Jones, S.L., Page, G.W., Gratto-Trevor, C.L. and Andres, B.A. 2006. Population estimates of North American shorebirds, 2006. Wader Study Group Bulletin 111:67-85.

10.    Sauer, J.R., Hines, J.E. and Fallon, J. 2008. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966 - 2007 [online]. U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/ (accessed 20 October, 2009).

11.    Morrison, R.I.G. and Collins, B.T. 2010. Atlantic Canada Shorebird Survey data. Unpublished data.

12.    Morrison, R.I.G., Downes, C. and Collins, B. 1994. Population trends of shorebirds on fall migration in eastern Canada 1974-1991. Wilson Bulletin 106:431-447.

13.    Ydenberg, R., Butler, R.W., Lank, D.B., Smith, B.D. and Ireland, J. 2004. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271:1263-1269. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2713.

14.    Bart, J., Brown, S., Harrington, B. and Morrison, R.I.G. 2007. Survey trends of North American shorebirds: population declines or shifting distributions? Journal of Avian Biology 38:73-82.

15.    Gaston, A.J., Bertram, D.F., Boyne, A.W., Chardine, J.W., Davoren, G., Diamond, A.W., Hedd, A., Montevecchi, W.A., Hipfner, J.M., Lemon, M.J.F., Mallory, M.L., Rail, J.-F. and Robertson, G.J. 2009. Changes in Canadian seabird populations and ecology since 1970 in relation to changes in oceanography and food webs. Environmental Reviews 17:267-286.

16.    Coe, J.M. and Rogers, D.B. 1997. Marine debris: sources, impacts and solutions. Springer Publishers. New York, NY. 432 p.

17.    2001. Seabird bycatch: trends, roadblocks and solutions. Edited by Melvin, E.F. and Parrish, J.K. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-01-01. Fairbanks, AK. 206 p.

18.    Schreiber, E.A. and Burger, J. 2002. Biology of marine birds. CRC Press. New York, NY. 722 p.

19.    Stenseth, N.C., Ottersen, G., Hurrell, J.W. and Belgrano, A. 2004. Marine ecosystem and climate variation. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK. 264 p.

20.    ACIA. 2005. Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY. 1042 p.

21.    Bertram, D.F., Mackas, D.L. and McKinnell, S.M. 2001. The seasonal cycle revisited: interannual variation and ecosystem consequences. Progress in Oceanography 49:283-307.

22.    Gjerdrum, C., Vallée, A.M.J., St.Clair, C.C., Bertram, D.F., Ryder, J.L. and Blackburn, G.S. 2003. Tufted puffin reproduction reveals ocean climate variability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:9377-9382.

23.    Hipfner, J.M. and Greenwood, J.L. 2008. Breeding biology of the common murre at Triangle Island, British Columbia, 2002-2007. Northwestern Naturalist 89:76-84.

24.    Parsons, M., Mitchell, I., Butler, A., Ratchliffe, N., Frederiksen, M., Foster, S. and Reid, J.B. 2008. Seabirds as indicators of the marine environment. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65:1520-1526.

25.    Hipfner, J.M. 2008. Matches and mismatches: ocean climate, prey phenology and breeding success in a zooplanktivorous seabird. Marine Ecology Progress Series 368:295-304.

26.    Hutchings, J.A. and Myers, R.A. 1994. What can be learned from the collapse of a renewable resource – Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, of Newfoundland and Labrador. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:2126-2146.

27.    Montevecchi, W.A. and Myers, R.A. 1996. Dietary changes of seabirds indicate shifts in pelagic food webs. Sarsia 80:313-322.

28.    Mann, K.H. and Drinkwater, K.F. 1994. Environmental influences on fish and shellfish production in the Northwest Atlantic. Environmental Reviews 2:16-32.

29.    Carscadden, J.E., Montevecchi, W.A., Davoren, G.K. and Nakashima, B.S. 2002. Trophic relationships among capelin (Mallotus villosus) and seabirds in a changing ecosystem. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:1027-1033.

30.    Benjamins, S., Kulka, D.W. and Lawson, J. 2008. Incidental catch of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador gillnet fisheries, 2001-2003. Endangered Species Research 5:149-160.

31.    Gaston, A.J. 2002. Results of monitoring thick-billed murre populations in the eastern Canadian Arctic, 1976-2000. Occasional Paper No. 106. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 50 p.

32.    Gaston, A.J., Woo, K. and Hipfner, J.M. 2003. Trends in forage fish populations in northern Hudson Bay since 1981, as determined from the diet of nestling thick-billed murres Uria lomvia. Arctic 56:227-233.

33.    Gaston, A.J., Gilchrist, H.G. and Hipfner, J.M. 2005. Climate change, ice conditions and reproduction in an Arctic nesting marine bird: Brunnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia L.). Journal of Animal Ecology74:832-841.

34.    Gaston, A.J., Glichrist, H.G., Mallory, M.L. and Smith, P.A. 2009. Changes in seasonal events, peak food availability and consequent breeding adjustment in a marine bird: a case of progressive mis-matching. The Condor 111:111-119.

35.    Downes, C., Blancher, P. and Collins, B. 2010. Landbird trends in Canada, 1968-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 12. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

36.    Canadian Wildlife Service. 2007. Breeding Bird Survey in Canada [online]. Environment Canada. http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/nwrc-cnrf/Default.asp?lang=En&n=416B57CA (accessed 20 October, 2009).

37.    North American Bird Conservation Initiative, U.S. Committee (NABCI-US). 2009. The state of the birds, United States of America, 2009. U.S. Department of Interior. Washington, DC. 36 p.

38.    Blancher, P. 2003. Importance of Canada's boreal forest to landbirds. Canadian Boreal Inititative and Boreal Songbird Initiative. Ottawa, ON and Seattle, WA. 43 p.

39.    Blancher, P.J., Phoenix, R.D., Badzinski, D.S., Cadman, M.D., Crewe, T.L., Downes, C.M., Fillman, D., Francis, C.M., Hughes, J., Hussell, D.J.T., Lepage, D., McCracken, J.D., McNicol, D.K., Pond, B.A., Ross, R.K., Russells, R., Venier, L.A. and Weeber, R.C. 2009. Population trend status of Ontario's forest birds. Forestry Chronicle 85:184-201.

40.    Nebel, S., Mills, A.M., McCracken, J.D. and Taylor, P.D. Declines of aerial insectivores in North America follow a geographic gradient. Submitted for publication.

41.    Robbins, C.S., Droege, S. and Sauer, J.R. 1989. Monitoring bird populations with Breeding Bird Survey and atlas data. Annales Zoologici Fennici 26:297-304.

42.    Terborgh, J. 1989. Where have all the birds gone? Essay on the biology and conservation of birds that migrate to the American tropics. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. 224 p.

43.    Canadian Wildlife Services Waterfowl Committee. 2009. Population status of migratory game birds in Canada (and regulation proposals for overabundant species). CWS Migratory Birds Regulatory Report No. 28. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 95 p.

44.    Fast, M., Collins, B. and Gendron, M. 2010. Trends in breeding waterfowl in Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 8. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In preparation.

45.    De Vink, J.M.A., Clark, R.G., Slattery, S.M. and Trauger, D.L. 2008. Are late-spring boreal lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) in poor body condition? Auk 125:297-298.

46.    Austin, J.E., Afton, A.D., Anderson, M.G., Clark, R.G., Custer, C.M., Lawrence, J.S., Pollard, J.B. and Ringelman, J.K. 2000. Declining scaup populations: issues, hypotheses, and research needs. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:254-263.

47.    North American Waterfowl Management Plan. 2004. Strengthening the biological foundation: 2004 implementation framework. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Canadian Wildlife Service and Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. 106 p.

48.    BDJV. 2010. Black Duck Joint Venture 2009 annual report. North American Waterfowl Management Plan. 13 p. Unpublished.

49.    Lepage, C. and Bordage, D. 2003. The American black duck. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Quebec Region. Quebec, QC.

50.    OEHJV. 2007. Ontario Eastern Habitat Joint Venture five-year implementation plan 2006-2010. Ontario Eastern Habitat Joint Venture. Ottawa, ON. 94 p.

51.    Petrie, M.J., Drobney, R.D. and Sears, D.T. 2000. Mallard and black duck breeding parameters in New Brunswick: a test of the reproductive rate hypothesis. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:832-838.

52.    Zimmerling, J.R. 2007. Mallard. In Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario, 2001-2005. Edited by Cadman, M.D., Sutherland, D.A., Beck, G.G., Lepage, D. and Couturier, A.R. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Ontario Nature. Toronto, ON. pp. 78-79.

53.    Longcore, J.R., Mcauley, D.G., Hepp, G.R. and Rhymer, J.M. 2000. The birds of North America online: American black duck (Anas rubripes) [online]. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/481/articles/introduction (accessed 30 July, 2010).

54.    Canadian Wildlife Service Waterfowl Committee. 2008. Population status of migratory game birds in Canada: November 2008. CWS Migratory Birds Regulatory Report No. 25. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 92 p.

55.    Raven, G.H. and Dickson, D.L. 2006. Changes in distribution and abundance of birds on western Victoria Island from 1992-1994 to 2004-2005. Technical Report Series No. 456. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region. Edmonton, AB. 60 p.

56.    Gratto-Trevor, C.L., Johnston, V.H. and Pepper, S.T. 1998. Changes in shorebird and eider abundance in the Rasmussen Lowlands, NT. Wilson Bulletin110:316-325.

57.    Suydam, R.S., Dickson, D.L., Fadely, J.B. and Quakenbush, L.T. 2000. Population declines of king and common eiders of the Beaufort Sea. The Condor
102:219-222.

58.    Dickson, D.L., Cotter, R., Hines, J.E. and Kay, M.F. 2010. Distribution and abundance of king eiders Somateria spectabilis in the Western Canadian Arctic. Canadian Wildlife Service Occassional Paper No. 94. Edited by Dickson, D.L. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. Ottawa, ON. 39 p.

17. Caribou

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Gordon, B.C. 2005. 8,000 years of caribou and human seasonal migration in the Canadian barrenlands. Rangifer Special Issue No. 16:155-162.

2.    Gunn, A. and Russell, D. 2010. Northern caribou population trends in Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 10. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

3.    Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. 2009. 27th annual report 2008-2009. Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. Stonewall, MB. 66 p.

4.    Northwest Territories Environment and Natural Resources. 2009. Bathurst caribou herd [online]. http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/_live/pages/wpPages/Bathurst_Caribou_Herd.aspx (accessed 18 August, 2010).

5.    COSEWIC. 2004. COSEWIC Assessment and update status report on the Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi and the barren-ground caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus (Dolphin and Union population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 91 p.

6.    Miller, F.L. and Gunn, A. 2003. Catastrophic die-off of Peary Caribou on the Western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic. Arctic 56:381-390.

7.    Gunn, A., Miller, F.L., Barry, S.J. and Buchan, A. 2006. A near-total decline in caribou on Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell Islands, Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59:1-13.

8.    Rennert, K.J., Roe, G., Putkonen, J. and Bitz, C.M. 2009. Soil thermal and ecological impacts of rain on snow events in the circumpolar Arctic. Journal of Climate 22:2302-2315.

9.    Rinke, A. and Dethloff, K. 2008. Simulated circum-Arctic climate changes by the end of the 21st century. Global and Planetary Change 62:173-186.

10.    CARMA. 2009. Caribou herd information, CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network [online]. http://carmanetwork.com/display/public/Herds (accessed 24 June, 2010).

11.    Krezek-Hanes, C.C., Cantin, A. and Flannigan, M.D. 2010. Trends in large fires in Canada, 1959 to 2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 6. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

12.    Wolfe, S.A., B.Griffith and C.A.G.Wolfe. 2000. Response of reindeer and caribou to human activities. Polar Research 19:63-73.

13.    Johnson, C.J., Boyce, M.S., Case, R.L., Cluff, H.D., Gau, R.J., Gunn, A. and Mulders, R. 2005. Cumulative effects of human developments on arctic wildlife. Wildlife Monographs 1-36.

14.    Cameron, R.D., Smith, W.T., White, R.G. and Griffith, B. 2005. Central Arctic caribou and petroleum development: distributional, nutritional, and reproductive implications. Arctic 58:1-9.

15.    Magoun, A.J., Abraham, K.F., Thompson, J.E., Ray, J.C., Gauthier, M.E., Brown, G.S., Woolmer, G., Chenier, C.J. and Dawson, F.N. 2005. Distribution and relative abundance of caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone of Ontario. Rangifer 16:105-121.

16.    Elliott, C. 1998. Cape Churchill caribou: status of herd and harvest 1997/98. Manuscript Report No. 98-05. Manitoba Natural Resources.

17.    Environment Canada. 2008. Scientific review for the identification of critical habitat for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), boreal population, in Canada. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 72 p.

18.    Thomas, D.C. and Gray, D.R. 2002. Update COSEWIC status report on the woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou in Canada. In COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON. 98 p.

19.    Northern Mountain Caribou Management Planning Team. 2010. Management plan for the northern mountain population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Canada [draft]. Species at Risk Act Management Plan Series. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON. 74 p.

20.    Schaefer, J.A. 2003. Long-term range recession and the persistence of caribou in the taiga. Conservation Biology 17:1435-1439.

21.    Bergerud, A.T. and Mercer, W.E. 1989. Caribou introductions in eastern North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17:111-120.

22.    B.C. Mountain Caribou Science Team. 2005. Mountain caribou in British Columbia: A situation analysis. 9 p.

23.    James, A.R.C. and Stuart-Smith, A.K. 2000. Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:154-159.

24.    Seip, D.R. 1992. Factors limiting woodland caribou populations and their interrelationships with wolves and moose in southeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1494-1503.

25.    McLoughlin, P.D., Dzus, E., Wynes, B. and Boutin, S. 2003. Declines in populations of woodland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 67:755-761.

26.    Racey, G.D. 2005. Climate change and woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario: a risk analysis. Rangifer 123-136.

27.    Callaghan, C., Virc, S. and Duffe, J. 2010. Woodland caribou, boreal population, trends in Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends Report 2010, Technical Thematic Series No. 11. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

28.    Henttonen, H and Tikhonov, A. 2008. IUCN red list of threatened species version 2010.1: Rangifer tarandus [online]. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/29742/0 (accessed 7 May, 2010).

29.    Vors, L.S. and M.S.Boyce. 2009. Global declines of caribou and reindeer. Global Change Biology 15:2626-2633.

18. Primary productivity

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Ahern, F., Frisk, J., Latifovic, R. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Monitoring ecosystems remotely: a selection of trends measured from satellite observations of Canada. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 17. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

2.    Wang, J., Rich, P.M. and Price, K.P. 2003. Temporal responses of NDVI to precipitation and temperature in the central Great Plains, USA. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24:2345-2364.

3.    Pouliot, D, Latifovic, R. and Olthof, I. 2009. Trends in vegetation NDVI from 1 km AVHRR data over Canada for the period 1985-2006. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30:149-168.

4.    Slayback, D.A., Pinzon, J.E., Los, S.O. and Tucker, C.J. 2003. Northern Hemisphere photosynthetic trends 1982-99. Global Change Biology 9:1-15.

5.    Olthof, I., Pouliot, D., Latifovic, R. and Chen, W.J. 2008. Recent (1986-2006) vegetation-specific NDVI trends in northern Canada from satellite data. Arctic 61:381-394.

6.    Gamache, I. and Payette, S. 2004. Height growth response of tree line black spruce to recent climate warming across the forest-tundra of eastern Canada. Journal of Ecology 92:835-845.

7.    Olthof, I. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Treeline vegetation composition and change in Canada's western subarctic from AVHRR and canopy reflectance modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 114:805-815.

8.    Szeicz, J.M. and MacDonald, G.M. 1995. Recent white spruce dynamics at the subarctic alpine treeline of northwestern Canada. Journal of Ecology 83:873-885.

9.    Nemani, R.R., Keeling, C.D., Hashimoto, H., Jolly, W.M., Piper, S.C., Tucker, C.J., Myneni, R.B. and Running, S.W. 2003. Climate driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science 300:1560-1563.

10.    Michelutti, N., Wolfe, A.P., Vinebrooke, R.D., Rivard, B. and Briner, J.P. 2005. Recent primary production increases in arctic lakes. Geophysical Research Letters 32. doi:10.1029/2005GL023693.

11.    Smol, J.P., Wolfe, A.P., Birkds, H.J.B., Douglas, M.S.V., Jones, V.J., Korhola, A., Pienitz, R., Ruhland, K., Sorvari, S., Antoniades, D., Brooks, S.J., Fullu, M.A., Huges, M., Keatley, B.E., Laing, T.E., Michelutti, N., Nazarova, L., Nyman, J., Paterson, A.M., Perren, B., Quinlan, R., Ruatio, M., Saulnier-Talbot, E., Sutonen, S., Solvieva, N. and Weckstrom, J. 2005. Climate-driven regime shifts in the biological communities of Arctic lakes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:4397-4402.

12.    Antoniades, D., Crawley, C., Douglas, M.S.V., Pienitz, R., Andersen, D., Doran, P.T., Hawes, I., Pollard, W. and Vincent, W.F. 2007. Abrupt environmental change in Canada's northernmost lake inferred from fossil diatom and pigment stratigraphy. Geophysical Research Letters 34. doi:10.1029/2007GL030947.

13.    Smol, J.P. and Douglas, M.S.V. 2007. From controversy to consensus: Making the case for recent climate change using lake sediments. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:466-474.

14.    Antoniades, D., Douglas, M.S.V. and Smol, J.P. 2005. Quantitative estimates of recent environmental changes in the Canadian High Arctic inferred from diatoms in lake and pond sediments. Journal of Paleolimnology 33:349-360.

15.    Rühland, K., Paterson, A.M. and Smol, J.P. 2008. Hemispheric-scale patterns of climate-related shifts in planktonic diatoms from North American and European lakes. Global Change Biology 14:2740-2754.

16.    Boyce, D., Lewis, M. and Worm, B. 2010. Global phytoplankton decline over the past century. Nature 466:591-596. doi:10.1038/nature09268.

17.    Pabi, S., van Dijken, G.L. and Arrigo, K.R. 2008. Primary production in the Arctic Ocean, 1998-2006. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 113. doi:10.1029/2007JC004578.

18.    Arrigo, K.R., van Dijken, G. and Pabi, S. 2008. Impact of a shrinking Arctic ice cover on marine primary production. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L19603.

19. Natural disturbances

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Stocks, B.J., Mason, J.A., Todd, J.B., Bosch, E.M., Wotton, B.M., Amiro, B.D., Flannigan, M.D., Hirsch, K.G., Logan, K.A., Martell, D.L. and Skinner, W.R. 2003. Large forest fires in Canada, 1959-1997. Journal of Geophysical Research 108:8149-8161.

2.    Krezek-Hanes, C.C., Cantin, A. and Flannigan, M.D. 2010. Trends in large fires in Canada, 1959 to 2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 6. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

3.    Gillett, N.P., Weaver, A.J., Zwiers, F.W. and Flannigan, M.D. 2004. Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophysical Research Letters 31. doi:10.1029/2004GL020876.

4.    Parisien, M.A., Peters, V.S., Wang, Y., Little, J.M., Bosch, E.M. and Stocks, B.J. 2006. Spatial patterns of forest fires in Canada, 1980-1999. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15:361-374.

5.    Flannigan, M.D. and Wotton, B.M. 2001. Climate, weather and area burned. In Forest fires-behaviour and ecological effects. Edited by Johnson, E.A. and Miyanishi, K. Academic Press. San Diego, CA. pp. 335-357.

6.    Flannigan, M., Logan, K., Amiro, B., Skinner, W. and Stocks, B. 2005. Future area burned in Canada. Climatic Change 72:1-16.

7.    Girardin, M.P., Tardif, J. and Flannigan, M.D. 2006. Temporal variability in area burned for the Province of Ontario, Canada, during the past 200 years inferred from tree rings. Journal of Geophysical Research 111. doi:10.1029/2005 JD006815.

8.    Girardin, M.P., Tardif, J., Flannigan, M.D. and Bergeron, Y. 2006. Synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation and boreal Canada summer drought variability of the past three centuries. Journal of Climate 19:1922-1947.

9.    Bergeron, Y., Flannigan, M., Gauthier, S., Leduc, A. and Lefort, P. 2004. Past, current, and future fire frequency in the Canadian boreal forest: implications for sustainable forest management. Ambio 33:356-360.

10.    Bergeron, Y., Cyr, D., Drever, C.R., Flannigan, M., Gauthier, S., Kneeshae, D., Lauzon, E., Leduc, A., Le Goff, H., Lesieur, D. and Logan, K. 2006. Past, current, and future frequencies in Quebec's commercial forests: implications for the cumulative effects of harvesting and fire on age-class structure and natural disturbance-based management. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:2737-2744.

11.    Skinner, W.R., Shabbar, A., Flannigan, M.D. and Logan, K. 2006. Large forest fires in Canada and the relationship to global sea surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research 111. doi:10.1029/2005JD006738.

12.    Girardin, M.P. 2007. Interannual to decadal changes in area burned in Canada from 1781 to 1982 and the relationship to Northern Hemisphere land temperatures. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16:557-566.

13.    Skinner, W.R., Flannigan, M.D., Stocks, B.J., Martell, D.L., Wotton, B.M., Todd, J.B., Mason, J.A., Logan, K.A. and Bosch, E.M. 2002. A 500 hPa synoptic wildland fire climatology for large Canadian forest fires, 1959-1996. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 71:157-169.

14.    Macias Fauria, M. and Johnson, E.A. 2008. Climate and wildfires in the North American boreal forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363:2317-2329. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2202.

15.    Balshi, M.S., McGuire, A.D., Duffy, P., Flannigan, M., Walsh, J. and Melillo, J. 2009. Modeling historical and future area burned of western boreal North America using a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) approach. Global Change Biology 15:578-600.

16.    de Groot, W.J., Bothwell, P.M., Carlsson, D.H. and Logan, K.A. 2003. Simulating the effects of future fire regimes on western Canadian boreal forests. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:355-364.

17.    Weber, M.G. and Flannigan, M.D. 1997. Canadian boreal forest ecosystem structure and function in a changing climate: impact on fire regimes. Environmental Reviews 5:145-166.

18.    Kasischke, E.S. and Turetsky, M.R. 2006. Recent changes in the fire regime across the North American boreal region – spatial and temporal patterns of burning across Canada and Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 33. doi:1029/2006GL025677.

19.    Amiro, B.D., Todd, J.B., Wotton, B.M., Logan, K.A., Flannigan, M.D., Stocks, B.J., Mason, J.A., Martell, D.L. and Hirsch, K.G. 2001. Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959-1999. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:512-525.

20.    Westerling, A.L., Hidalgo, H.G., Cayan, D.R. and Swetnam, T.W. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313:940-943.

21.    Martell, D.L. and Sun, H. 2008. The impact of fire suppression, vegetation, and weather on the area burned by lightning-caused forest fires in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:1547-1563.

22.    Cumming, S.G. 2005. Effective fire suppression in boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:772-786.

23.    Gayton, D. 1996. Fire-maintained ecosystems and the effects of forest ingrowth – December 1996 research summary. Nelson Forest Region, B.C. Ministry of Forests. Nelson, BC. 4 p.

24.    Daigle, P. 1996. Fire in the dry interior forests of British Columbia. Extension Note No. 8. B.C. Ministry of Forests Research Program. Victoria, BC. 5 p.

25.    Taylor, S.W., Carroll, A.L., Alfaro, R.E. and Safranyik, L. 2006. Forest, climate and mountain pine beetle outbreak dynamics in western Canada. In The mountain pine beetle: a synthesis of biology, management and impacts in lodgepole pine. Edited by Safranyik, L. and Wilson, W.R. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. Victoria, BC. Chapter 2. pp. 67-94.

26.    Flannigan, M.D., Stocks, B.J., Turetsky, M.R. and Wotton, B.M. 2009. Impact of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest. Global Change Biology 15:549-560.

27.    Girardin, M.P. and Wotton, B.M. 2009. Summer moisture and wildfire risks across Canada. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
48:517-533.

28.    Girardin, M.P., Bergeron, Y., Tardif, J.C., Gauthier, S., Flannigan, M.D. and Mudelsee, M. 2006. A 229-year dendroclimatic-inferred record of forest fire activity for the Boreal Shield of Canada. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15:375-388.

29.    Beverly, J.L. and Martell, D.L. 2005. Characterizing extreme fire and weather events in the Boreal Shield Ecozone of Ontario. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 133:5-16.

30.    Wotton, B.M. and Flannigan, M.D. 1993. Length of the fire season in a changing climate. Forestry Chronicle 69:187-192.

31.    Girardin, M.P., Ali, A.A., Carcaillet, C., Mudelsee, M., Drobyshev, I. and Bergeron, Y. 2009. Heterogeneous response of circumboreal wildfire risk to climate change since the early 1900s. Global Change Biology 15:2751-2769. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01869.x.

32.    Flannigan, M.D., Krawchuk, M.A., de Groot, W.J., Wotton, B.M. and Gowman, L.M. 2009. Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18:483-507.

33.    Flannigan, M.D., Bergeron, Y., Engelmark, O. and Wotton, B.M. 1998. Future wildfire in circumboreal forests in relation to global warming. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:469-476.

34.    Stocks, B.J., Fosberg, M.A., Lynham, T.J., Mearns, L., Wotton, B.M., Yang, Q., Jin, J.Z., Lawrence, K., Hartley, G.R., Mason, J.A. and Mckenney, D.W. 1998. Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests. Climatic Change 38:1-13.

35.    Flannigan, M.D., Stocks, B.J. and Wotton, B.M. 2000. Climate change and forest fires. The Science of the Total Environment 262:221-230.

36.    Liu, Y. and Stanturf, J. 2010. Trends in global wildfire potential in a changing climate. Forest Ecology and Management 259:685-697.

37.    Scholze, M., Knorr, W., Arnell, N.W. and Prentice, I.C. 2006. A climate-change risk analysis for world ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:13116-13120.

38.    Canadian Forest Service. 2007. Spruce budworm and sustainable management of the boreal forest: Summary of a project funded under British Columbia's Forestry Innovation Investment Program [online]. Natural Resources Canada. http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/subsite/budworm (accessed 26 August, 2010).

39.    Nealis, V.G. and Régnière, J. 2004. Insect-host relationships influencing disturbance by the spruce budworm in a boreal mixedwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34:1870-1882.

40.    MacLean, D.A. 1980. Vulnerability of fir spruce stands during uncontrolled spruce budworm outbreaks: a review and discussion. Forestry Chronicle 56:213-221.

41.    Fleming, R.A., Candau, J.N. and McAlpine, R.S. 2002. Landscape-scale analysis of interactions between insect defoliation and forest fire in central Canada. Climatic Change 55:251-272.

42.    Volney, W.J.A. and Fleming, R.A. 2007. Spruce budworm (Choristoneura spp.) biotype reactions to forest and climate characteristics. Global Change Biology 13:1630-1643.

43.    Gray, D.R. and MacKinnon, W.E. 2006. Outbreak patterns of the spruce budworm and their impacts in Canada. The Forestry Chronicle 82:550-561.

44.    Boulanger, Y. and Arseneault, D. 2004. Spruce budworm outbreaks in eastern Quebec over the last 450 years. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34:1035-1043. doi:10.1139/X03-269.

45.    Royama, T., MacKinnon, W.E., Kettela, E.G., Carter, N.E. and Hartling, L.K. 2005. Analysis of spruce budworm outbreak cycles in New Brunswick, Canada, since 1952. Ecology 86:1212-1224.

46.    National Forestry Database. 2010. Forest insects – quick facts. Area of moderate to severe defoliation and beetle-killed trees by major insects, 2008 – spruce budworm [online]. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. http://nfdp.ccfm.org/insects/quick_facts_e.php (accessed 7 July, 2010). Reports generated for spruce budworm and western spruce budworm.

47.    Westfall, J. and Ebata, T. 2008. 2008 summary of forest health conditions in British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range. Victoria, BC. 85 p.

48.    MacLauchlan, L.E., Brooks, J.E. and Hodge, J.C. 2006. Analysis of historic western spruce budworm defoliation in south central British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 226:351-356.

49.    Kettela, E.G. 1983. A cartographic history of spruce budworm defoliation from 1967 to 1981 in eastern North America. Information Report No. DPC-X-14. Canadian Forestry Service, Environment Canada. Hull, QC. 9 p.

50.    Strubble, D. 2008. Spruce budworm defoliation in Maine from 1955 to 2008. Maine Forest Service. Unpublished data.

51.    Blais, J.R. 1983. Trends in the frequency, extent and severity of spruce budworm outbreaks in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13:539-545.

52.    Gray, D.R. and MacKinnon, W.E. 2007. Historical spruce budworm defoliation records adjusted for insecticide protection in New Brunswick, 1965-1992. Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society 3:1-6.

53.    Carter, N., Hartling, L., Lavigne, D., Gullison, J., O'Shea, D., Proude, J., Farquhar, R. and Winter, D. 2008. Preliminary summary of forest pest conditions in New Brunswick in 2007 and outlook for 2008. Department of Natural Resources, Forest Pest Management Section. Fredericton, NB.

54.    Neily, P.D., Quigley, E.J., Stewart, B.J. and Keys, K.S. 2007. Forest disturbance ecology in Nova Scotia: Draft report. Renewable Resources Branch, Forestry Division Ecosystem Management Group. Truro, NS.

55.    Loo, J. and Ives, N. 2003. The Acadian forest: historical condition and human impacts. The Forestry Chronicle 79:462-474.

56.    British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range. 2010. Provincial-level projection of the current mountain pine beetle outbreak. GIS maps. Cumulative pine volume killed by mountain pine beetle, 1999-2009. Version 7 [online]. Research Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range. http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/bcmpb/Year7.htm (accessed 14 July, 2010).

57.    Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. 2010. Area affected by mountain pine beetle in Alberta, 2009. Map. Government of Alberta.

58.    BC Ministry of Forests and Range. 2010. Beetle facts [online]. Government of British Columbia. http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/mountain_pine_beetle/facts.htm (accessed 6 April, 2010).

59.    National Forestry Database. 2010. Forest insects – quick facts. Areas within which moderate to severe defoliation occurs including area of beetle-killed trees by insects and province/territory, 1975-2009: mountain pine beetle [online]. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. http://nfdp.ccfm.org/insects/quick_facts_e.php (accessed May, 2010).

60.    Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. 2006. 2006 annual report: forest health in Alberta. Government of Alberta. 58 p.

61.    Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. 2009. 2009 annual report: forest health in Alberta. Government of Alberta.

62.    Tyssen, B. 2009. Mountain pine beetle aerial survey 2009. Map. Government of Alberta.

63.    Winkler, R.D., Rex, J., Tetl, P., Maloney, D. and Redding, T. 2008. Mountain pine beetle, forest practices and watershed management. Extension Note No. 88. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range, Research Branch. Victoria, BC. 11 p.

64.    Taylor, S.W. and Carroll, A.L. 2004. Disturbance, forest age, and mountain pine beetle outbreak dynamics in BC: a historical perspective. Mountain pine beetle symposium: challenges and solutions. October 30-31, 2003, Kelowna, British Columbia. Edited by Shore, T.L., Brooks, J.E. and Stone, J.E. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-399. pp. 41-51.

65.    Li, C., Barclay, H.J., Hawkes, B.C. and Taylor, S.W. 2005. Lodgepole pine forest age class dynamics and susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack. Ecological Complexity 2:232-239.

66.    Allen, E. 2001. Forest health assessment in Canada. Ecosystem Health 7:27-34.

67.    Shore, T.L., Safranyik, L., Hawkes, B.C. and Taylor, S.W. 2006. Effects of the mountain pine beetle on lodgepole pine stand structure and dynamics. In The mountain pine beetle: a synthesis of biology, management, and impacts in lodgepole pine. Edited by Safranyik, L. and Wilson, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. Victoria, BC. Chapter 3. pp. 95-114.

68.    McCullough, D.G., Werner, R.A. and Neumann, D. 1998. Fire and insects of northern and boreal forest ecosystems of North America. Annual Review of Entomology 43:107-127.

69.    Forest Practices Branch. 2010. Forest health conditions: 2009 aerial overview survey summary table [online]. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range. http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/health/overview/2009table.htm (accessed 22 April, 2010).

70.    BC Ministry of Forests, Forest Analysis Branch. 2003. Timber supply and the mountain pine beetle infestation in British Columbia. BC Ministry of Forests. 23 p.

71.    Safranyik, L. and Carroll, A.L. 2006. The biology and epidemiology of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. In The mountain pine beetle: a synthesis of biology, management, and impacts on lodgepole pine. Edited by Safranyik, L. and Wilson, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forest Centre. Victoria, BC. Chapter 1. pp. 3-66.

72.    Carroll, A.L., Taylor, S.W., Régnière, J. and Safranyik, L. 2004. Effects of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pine beetle in British Columbia. Mountain pine beetle symposium: challenges and solutions. October 30-31, 2003, Kelowna, British Columbia. Edited by Shore, T.L., Brooks, J.E. and Stone, J.E. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-399. pp. 223-232.

73.    Zhang, X., Brown, R., Vincent, L., Skinner, W., Feng, Y. and Mekis, E. 2010. Canadian climate trends 1950-2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 5. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

74.    Stahl, K., Moore, R.D. and McKendry, I.G. 2006. Climatology of winter cold spells in relation to mountain pine beetle mortality in British Columbia, Canada. Climate Research 32:13-23.

20. Food webs

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Smith, R.L. and Smith, T.M. 2001. Ecology and field biology. Edition 6. Benjamin Cummings. 771 p.

2.    Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. State of the Great Lakes 2009. 432 p.

3.    Hummel, M. and Ray, J.C. 2008. Caribou and the North: a shared future. Dundurn Press. 320 p.

4.    Dodds, D. 1983. Terrestrial mammals. In Biogeography and ecology of the island of Newfoundland. Edited by South, G.R. Junk Publishers. The Hague, The Netherlands.

5.    Blake, J. and McGrath, M. 2006. Coyotes in insular Newfoundland: current knowledge and management of the island's newest mammalian predator. Wildlife Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Corner Brook, NL. 11 p.

6.    Cote, S.D., Rooney, T.P., Tremblay, J.P., Dussault, C. and Waller, D.M. 2004. Ecological impacts of deer overabundance. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:113-147.

7.    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 2004. Strategy for preventing and managing human-deer conflicts in southern Ontario. Queen's Printer. Toronto, ON. 20 p.

8.    Bazely, D. 2010. White-tailed deer induced changes in the germinable seedbanks of Ontario's Carolinian (deciduous) forest communities. 95th ESA Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, August 1-6 2010.

9.    Koh, S., Bazely, D., Tanetzap, A., Voight, D. and Da Silva, E. 2010. Trillium grandiflorum height is an indicator of white-tailed deer density at local and regional scales. Forest Ecology and Management 259:1472-1479.

10.    Paquet, P.C. and Carbyn, L.N. 2003. Gray wolf. In Wild mammals of North America: biology, management and conservation. Edited by Feldhamer, G.A., Thompson, B.C. and Chapman, J.A. Johns Hopkins University Press. Chapter 23. pp. 482-510.

11.    Cotterill, S.E. 1997. Status of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) in Alberta. Alberta Wildlife Status Report No. 7. Alberta Environmental Protection, Wildlife Management Division. Edmonton, AB. 17 p.

12.    Emery, R.B., Howerter, D.W., Armstrong, L.M., Anderson, M.G., Devries, J.H. and Joynt, B.L. 2005. Seasonal variation in waterfowl nesting success and its relation to cover management in the Canadian Prairies. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1181-1193.

13.    Bekoff, M. and Gese, E.M. 2003. Coyote. In Wild mammals of North America: biology, management and conservation. Edited by Feldhammer, G.A., Thompson, B.C. and Chapman, J.A. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 467-481.

14.    Krebs, C.J. 2010. Kluane monitoring data [online]. http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~krebs/kluane.html (accessed 15 July, 2010).

15.    Environment and Natural Resources. 2009. NWT small mammal and hare transect surveys: update 2009. Government of Northwest Territories. Yellowknife, NT. Unpublished report.

16.    Predavec, M., Krebs, C.J., Dannell, K. and Hyndman, R.J. 2001. Cycles and synchrony in the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) in Arctic North America. Oecologia 126:216-224.

17.    Cadieux, M.-C., Gauthier, G., Gagnon, C.A., Lévesque, E., Bêty, J. and Berteaux, D. 2008. Monitoring the environmental and ecological impacts of climate change on Bylot Island, Sirmilik National Park, 2004-2008 final report. Université Laval; UQAR; Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières; Centre d'études nordiques. Québec, QC. 113 p.

18.    Berteaux, D. 15 June, 2010. Université du Québec à Rimouski. Personal communication.

19.    Krebs, C.J., Boutin, S. and Boonstra, R. 2001. Ecosystem dynamics of the boreal forest. Oxford University Press. New York, NY. 511 p.

20.    Krebs, C.J., Boonstra, R., Boutin, S. and Sinclair, A.R.E. 2001. What drives the 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares? BioScience 51:25-35.

21.    Callaghan, T.V., Bjorn, L.O., Chapin, F.S.I., Chernov, Y., Christensen, T.R., Huntley, B., Ims, R.A., Johansson, M., Riedlinger, D.J., Jonasson, S., Matveyeva, N.V., Oechel, W., Panikov, N., Shaver, G.R., Elster, J., Henttonen, H., Jonsdottir, I.S., Laine, K., Schaphoff, S., Taulavuori, E., Taulavuori, K. and Zockler, C. 2005. Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems. In Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Edited by ACIA. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 7. pp. 243-352.

22.    Ims, R.A., Henden, J.A. and Killengreen, S.T. 2008. Collapsing population cycles. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23:79-86.

23.    Hörnfeldt, B., Hipkiss, T. and Eklund, U. 2005. Fading out of vole and predator cycles? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272:2045-2049. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3141.

SCIENCE/POLICY INTERFACE

21. Biodiversity monitoring, research, information management, and reporting

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Global biodiversity outlook 3. Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal, QC. 94 p.

2.    Dobson, A. 2005. Monitoring global rates of biodiversity change: challenges that arise in meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2010 goals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 360:229-241.

3.    Monk, W.A., Baird, D.J., Curry, R.A., Glozier, N. and Peters, D.L. 2010. Ecosystem status and trends report: biodiversity in Canadian lakes and rivers. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 20. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

4.    Bartzen, B.A., Dufour, K.W., Clark, R.G. and Caswell, F.D. 2010. Trends in agricultural impact and recovery of wetlands in prairie Canada. Ecological Applications 20:525-538.

5.    Boutin, S., Haughland, D.L., Schieck, J., Herbers, J. and Bayne, E. 2009. A new approach to forest biodiversity monitoring in Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 258:S168-S175.

6.    Vaughan, H., Whitelaw, G., Craig, B. and Stewart, C. 2003. Linking ecological science to decision-making: delivering environmental monitoring information as societal feedback. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 88:399-408.

7.    Parks Canada Agency. 2007. State of protected heritage areas report: April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2007. Parks Canada. 14 p.

8.    Nielsen, S., Haughland, D., Bayne, E. and Schieck, J. 2009. Capacity of large - scale, long-term biodiversity monitoring programmes to detect trends in species prevalence. Biodiversity and Conservation 18:2961-2978.

9.    Langor, D.W. and Spence, J.R. 2006. Arthropods as ecological indicators of sustainability in Canadian forests. Forestry Chronicle 82:344-350.

10.    Mace, G.M. 2004. The role of taxonomy in species conservation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 359:711-719.

11.    Packer, L., Grixti, J.C., Roughley, R.E. and Hanner, R. 2009. The status of taxonomy in Canada and the impact of DNA barcoding. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne de Zoologie 87:1097-1110.

12.    Lepczyk, C.A., Boyle, O.D., Vargo, T.L., Gould, P., Jordan, R., Liebenberg, L., Masi, S., Mueller, W.P., Prysby, M.D. and Vaughan, H. 2009. Symposium 18: Citizen Science in Ecology: the Intersection of Research and Education. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 90:308-317.

13.    Canadian Wildlife Service. 2007. Breeding Bird Survey in Canada [online]. Environment Canada. http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/nwrc-cnrf/Default.asp?lang=En&n=416B57CA (accessed 20 October, 2009).

14.    Whitelaw, G., Vaughan, H., Craig, B. and Atkinson, D. 2003. Establishing the Canadian Community Monitoring Network. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 88:409-418.

15.    Bonney, R., Cooper, C.B., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Phillips, T., Rosenberg, K.V. and Shirk, J. 2009. Citizen Science: a developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy. Bioscience 59:977-984.

16.    Hurlburt, D. 2008. Synthesis of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (prepared for the Ecosystem Status and Trends Report Secretariat). 170 p. Unpublished report.

17.    Berkes, F. 2009. Indigenous ways of knowing and the study of environmental change. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 39:151-156.

18.    Gadgil, M., Olsson, P., Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 2003. Exploring the role of local ecological knowledge in ecosystem management: three case studies. In Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Edited by Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Chapter 8. pp. 189-209.

19.    Boudreau, S.A. and Worm, B. 2010. Top-down control of lobster in the Gulf of Maine: insights from local ecological knowledge and research surveys. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 403:181-191.

20.    Gagnon, C.A. and Berteaux, D. 2009. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and ecological science: a question of scale. Ecology and Society 14: Article 19.

21.    Usher, P.J. 2000. Traditional ecological knowledge in environmental assessment and management. Arctic 53:183-193.

22.    Eamer, J. 2006. Keep it simple and be relevant: the first ten years of the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op. In Bridging scales and knowledge systems: concepts and applications in ecosystem assessment. Edited by Reid, W.V., Berkes, F., Wilbanks, T. and Capistrano, D. Island Press. Washington, DC. Chapter 10. pp. 186-204.

23.    Duro, D., Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A. and Han, T. 2007. Development of a large area biodiversity monitoring system driven by remote sensing. Progress in Physical Geography 31:235-260.

24.    Whitfield, P.H. and Cannon, A.J. 2000. Recent climate moderated shifts in Yukon hydrology. 1 May, 2000. AWRA Spring Specialty Conference Proceedings. American Water Resource Association. Anchorage, AK. pp. 257-262.

25.    Dahl, T.E. and Watmough, M.D. 2007. Current approaches to wetland status and trends monitoring in prairie Canada and the continental United States of America. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 33:S17-S27.

26.    Latifovic, R. and Pouliot, D. 2007. Analysis of climate change impacts on lake ice phenology in Canada using the historical satellite data record. Remote Sensing of Environment 106:492-507.

27.    Krezek-Hanes, C.C., Cantin, A. and Flannigan, M.D. 2010. Trends in large fires in Canada, 1959 to 2007. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report Series No. 6. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, ON. In press.

28.    Fetterer, F., Knowles, K., Meier, W. and Savoie, M. 2010. Sea ice index [online]. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO. http://nsidc.org/data/g02135.html (accessed 4 October, 2010).

29.    Olthof, I. and Pouliot, D. 2010. Treeline vegetation composition and change in Canada's western subarctic from AVHRR and canopy reflectance modeling. Remote Sensing of Environment 114:805-815.

30.    Pouliot, D., Latifovic, R. and Olthof, I. 2009. Trends in vegetation NDVI from 1 km AVHRR data over Canada for the period 1985-2006. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30:149-168.

31.    Latifovic, R. and Pouliot, D. 2005. Multitemporal land cover mapping for Canada: methodology and products. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 31:347-363.

32.    Wulder, M.A., White, J.C., Han, T., Coops, N.C., Cardille, J.A., Holland, T. and Grills, D. 2008. Monitoring Canada's forests. Part 2: national forest fragmentation and pattern. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 34:563-584.

33.    Lee, P., Gysbers, J.D. and Stanojevic, Z. 2006. Canada's forest landscape fragments: a first approximation. Global Forest Watch Canada. Edmonton, AB. 97 p.

34.    Ahern, F. 2010. Detail of Peace Athabasca Delta, based on data from Global Forest Watch Canada.

35.    Lindenmayer, D.B. and Likens, G.E. 2009. Adaptive monitoring: a new paradigm for long-term research and monitoring. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24:482-486.

36.    Lovett, G.M., Burns, D.A., Driscoll, C.T., Jenkins, J.C., Mitchell, M.J., Rustad, L., Shanley, J.B., Likens, G.E. and Haeuber, R. 2007. Who needs environmental monitoring? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:253-260.

37.    DFO. 2010. 2010 Canadian marine ecosystem status and trends report. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2010/030. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 38 p.

22. Rapid changes and thresholds

Dates provided for each online source indicate when the page was last accessed to write this report. Some URLs provided may no longer be active.

1.    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series. World Resources Institute. Washington, DC. 100 p.

2.    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 976 p.

3.    Sheffer, M., Bascompte, J., Brock, W.A., Brovkin, V. and Carpenter, S.R. 2009. Early warning signs for critical transitions. Nature 461:53-59.

4.    Beamish, R.J., Noakes, D.J., McFarlane, G.A., Pinnix, W., Sweeting, R. and King, J. 2000. Trends in coho marine survival in relation to the regime concept. Fisheries Oceanography 9:114-119.

5.    Crawford, W.R. and Irvine, J.R. 2009. State of physical, biological and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2009/022. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. vi + 121 p.